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Graphene: The Carbon Compound of the Future

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Ken Noh

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of Graphene: The Carbon Compound of the Future

Graphene: The Carbon Molecule of the Future
Discovery
Discovered by Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov
Nobel Prize in 2010
Scotch tape with graphite creates graphene
Was discovered in 2002
In 2003, first production of isolated graphene flasks
Physical Properties
Nearly transparent
Very strong for its weight
Conducts heat and electricity
2D
Ballistic transport
Just like diamond: one molecule
Honeycomb structure
Harder than diamond and about 500 times harder than steel
Burns at a low temperature (350 ˚C)
Chemical Properties
Chemical formula: Cn
Most reactive carbon
Defects within the sheet increase reactivity
A single sheet of graphene is much more reactive than multiple layers
Graphene is extremely strong for its low mass.
The Beginnings of Graphene
‘toxic’ graphene could be used as an antibiotic or even anticancer treatment
graphene could be utilized in the process of tissue regeneration as scaffolding
Biological Engineering
The End
Thanks for Listening!
Bibliography
Primary:

WebsiteGraphene Applications & Uses
Fuente, J.
Graphene Applications & Uses
In-text: (Fuente, 2014)
Bibliography: Fuente, J. (2014). Graphene Applications & Uses. [online] Graphenea. Available at: http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene-uses-applications#.U1iyE-ZdVbs [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

WebsitePhys. Rev. Lett. 97, 016801 (2006) - Strong Suppression of Weak Localization in Graphene
Morozov, S., Novoselov, K., Katsnelson, M., Schedin, F., Ponomarenko, L., Jiang, D. and Geim, A.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 016801 (2006) - Strong Suppression of Weak Localization in Graphene
In-text: (Morozov et al., 2006)
Bibliography: Morozov, S., Novoselov, K., Katsnelson, M., Schedin, F., Ponomarenko, L., Jiang, D. and Geim, A. (2006). Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 016801 (2006) - Strong Suppression of Weak Localization in Graphene. [online] Journals.aps.org. Available at: http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.016801 [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

Wee Shing Koh, Choon How Gan, Wee Kee Phua, Yuriy A. Akimov, Ping Bai. The Potential of Graphene as an ITO Replacement in Organic Solar Cells: An Optical Perspective. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2014; 20 (1): 4000107 DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2247976

Bian Wu, Hatice M. Tuncer, Majid Naeem, Bin Yang, Matthew T. Cole, William I. Milne, Yang Hao. Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz. Scientific Reports, 2014; 4 DOI: 10.1038/srep04130

T.J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P.K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R.V. Gorbachev, A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, A.C. Ferrari, K.S. Novoselov. Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene. Nature Communications, 2011; 2: 458 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1464
Russian scientists Geim and Novoselov, used the scotch tape method
Irish-UK team created graphene by pouring graphite powder into a blender mixed with water and dishwashing soap
another method is to separate out the carbon layers using mechanical exfoliation
The Roll by Roll Process
Graphene Production (CVD)
Composite Material
Phones today use capitative touchscreens
respond to electric currents
Graphene + plastic = flexible screen
Since graphene is so strong and transparent, screen would be nearly impossible to break
Optical Electronics
Silicon vs. Graphene in Photovoltaic cells
much less expensive
Graphene offers low levels of light absorption and high electron mobility
When silicon turns light into electricity, a lot of potential energy is lost as heat
Graphene based photovoltaic cells could be used in new electronics material, such as conductive curtains or clothing
Photovoltaic Cells
Graphene incorporated into aircraft components because it is very strong and light
Utilized to replace steel in the structure of aircraft
Coat aircraft surface material to prevent electrical damage
Aid in the development of high strength requirement applications


Bibliography (cont.)
Images
-http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2609740/How-make-supermaterial-sink-Scientists-dishwashing-liquid-BLENDER-used-make-graphene.html
-http://grapheneus.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Graphene-filters.jpg
-http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/images/pictures/graphene-solar-cell.jpg
-http://wordlesstech.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/new-graphene-material.jpg
-http://tinyurl.com/muoyf6w
'Wonder material': Scientists create graphene in kitchen blender
latimes.com
'Wonder material': Scientists create graphene in kitchen blender
In-text: (latimes.com, 2014)
Bibliography: latimes.com, (2014). 'Wonder material': Scientists create graphene in kitchen blender. [online] Available at: http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-graphene-wonder-material-kitchen-blender-carbon-20140422,0,1990381.story [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

Anthony, S.
Samsung’s graphene breakthrough could finally put the wonder material into real-world devices | ExtremeTech
In-text: (Anthony, 2014)
Bibliography: Anthony, S. (2014). Samsung’s graphene breakthrough could finally put the wonder material into real-world devices | ExtremeTech. [online] ExtremeTech. Available at: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/179874-samsungs-graphene-breakthrough-could-finally-put-the-wonder-material-into-real-world-devices [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

Brewster, S. (2013). What is graphene? Here's what you need to know about a material that could be the next silicon. [online] Gigaom. Available at: https://gigaom.com/2013/07/15/what-is-graphene-heres-what-you-need-to-know-about-a-material-that-could-be-the-next-silicon/ [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

Thinnest graphene sheets react strongly with hydrogen atoms; thicker sheets are relatively unaffected
Gabrielsen, P.
Thinnest graphene sheets react strongly with hydrogen atoms; thicker sheets are relatively unaffected
In-text: (Gabrielsen, 2014)
Bibliography: Gabrielsen, P. (2014). Thinnest graphene sheets react strongly with hydrogen atoms; thicker sheets are relatively unaffected. [online] Phys.org. Available at: http://phys.org/news/2013-02-thinnest-graphene-sheets-react-strongly.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Konrad, T.
Graphene Stock Investing: What The Pros Think
In-text: (Konrad, 2013)
Bibliography: Konrad, T. (2013). Graphene Stock Investing: What The Pros Think. [online] Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomkonrad/2013/09/18/graphene-stock-investing-what-the-pros-think/ [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

Phys.org
Thinnest feasible nano-membrane produced
In-text: (Phys.org, 2014)
Bibliography: Phys.org, (2014). Thinnest feasible nano-membrane produced. [online] Available at: http://phys.org/news/2014-04-thinnest-feasible-nano-membrane.html [Accessed 7 May. 2014].

WebsiteThe 10 strangest facts about graphene | ZDNet
Sherriff, L.
The 10 strangest facts about graphene | ZDNet
In-text: (Sherriff, 2011)
Bibliography: Sherriff, L. (2011). The 10 strangest facts about graphene | ZDNet. [online] ZDNet. Available at: http://www.zdnet.com/the-10-strangest-facts-about-graphene-3040093050/ [Accessed 7 May. 2014].
Graphene Frontiers, a company dedicated to manufacturing graphene, uses a method known as a roll-to-roll process.
This method allows large (30 inch) graphene films to be grown on flexible copper substrates
The graphene is created by wet chemical doping and chemical vapor deposition
The resulting graphene films show a sheet resistance as low as ~30 /sq at ~90 % transparency which is superior to commercial transparent electrodes such as indium tin oxides (ITO)

CVD is a way of depositing gaseous reactants onto a substrate

Two Step Method:
1. Pyrolysis:
Gaseous substances are dissociated, carbon molecules especially
2. Graphene Formation
Dissociated carbons are combined and used to form graphene and waste gaseous products are removed
By Ajay Raj, Ken Noh, and Vivian Zhou F˚ Mellows
Semiconductors!
Band Theory: a metal and a semiconductor
Little or no energy needed to excite electrons: behave like photons
Benefits
Almost no electricity needed
Issues
Can't "turn off"
Berkeley discovers tunable band gap
Secondary
Graphene-coated cellophane
Bibliography (cont.)
Berger, M. (2011). A single layer of graphene is the thinnest possible invisibility cloak. [online] Nanowerk.com. Available at: http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=21931.php [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Berger, M. (2014). Nanotechnology primer: graphene - properties, uses and applications. [online] Nanowerk.com. Available at: http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=34184.php [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Fuente, J. (2014). CVD Graphene - Creating Graphene Via Chemical Vapour Deposition. [online] Graphenea. Available at: http://www.graphenea.com/pages/cvd-graphene#.U3k5BvldWSr [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Physics.bu.edu, (2014). Electrons, photons, and the photo-electric effect. [online] Available at: http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/py106/PhotoelectricEffect.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Princeton.edu, (2014). Chemical vapor deposition. [online] Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Chemical_vapor_deposition.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Sherriff, L. (2011). Researchers shed light on photoelectricity in graphene | ZDNet. [online] ZDNet. Available at: http://www.zdnet.com/researchers-shed-light-on-photoelectricity-in-graphene-4010024509/ [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Wikipedia, (2014). Chemical vapor deposition. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_vapor_deposition [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Brain, M. and Bryant, C. (2014). HowStuffWorks "Farad". [online] HowStuffWorks. Available at: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/capacitor2.htm [Accessed 19 May. 2014].

Kurzweilai.net, (2014). Graphene micro-supercapacitors to replace batteries for microelectonics devices | KurzweilAI. [online] Available at: http://www.kurzweilai.net/graphene-micro-supercapacitors-to-replace-batteries-for-microelectonics-devices [Accessed 19 May. 2014].

MIT Technology Review, (2014). Graphene Supercapacitors Ready for Electric Vehicle Energy Storage, Say Korean Engineers | MIT Technology Review. [online] Available at: http://www.technologyreview.com/view/521651/graphene-supercapacitors-ready-for-electric-vehicle-energy-storage-say-korean-engineers/ [Accessed 19 May. 2014].

Stacey, K. (2013). Jagged graphene edges can slice and dice cell membranes | Brown University News and Events. [online] News.brown.edu. Available at: http://news.brown.edu/pressreleases/2013/07/graphene [Accessed 19 May. 2014].
Shown to have unlimited heat conduction (heat conductivity of graphene is not a material constant)
Graphene's massless electrons are described by the Dirac equation, electrons act as photons
can be used as a mini particle accelerator
Klein tunneling, phenomenon found in graphene
Research Involving Graphene
Future Uses of Graphene
a piece of graphene pierces a cell membrane
graphene in capacitors:
increased energy storage ability
graphene micro-supercapicitors for microelectronics:
printed using a DVD burner at UCLA
for electric cars:
in Korea, researchers made supercapacitors from porous graphene foam
Energy Storage
a sheet of laser-scribed graphene micro-supercapacitors

Copper film entering CVD furnace
Schematics of the "Six Sensor" by Graphene Frontiers
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