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Phillip II of Spain

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by

Consuelo Sakuray

on 10 August 2015

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Transcript of Phillip II of Spain

King of Spain 1556 - 1598
We must protect ourselves from Muslims and Protestants
King of Portugal dies without a heir
I would rather lose all my lands and a hundred lives than be king over heretics.
Phillip II
The King is dead
The "
Agreeable Holocaust
"
The King of Portugal and the Algarves, uncle of King Phillip II has died, leaving behind no heir to assume the throne.
Phillip II, blood related to the King of Portugal is very interested in Portugal´s strongholds of Africa, India, East Indies... nowadays Brazil.
Phillip II seizes the throne. Now, the american mines will provide him of more gold and silver; the royal share of 1/4 - 1/5 of every ship and India (Goa) will secure now Spain´s monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg.
Europe was still experiencing many wars due to the Catholic Reformation. Phillip was decided to protect his empire from Muslims and Protestants. He started by making an edict and with it expelling all Moriscos (Muslims) from Spain. They were given 3 days to board ships destined to North Africa or the Ottoman Empire. Protestants and Jews were also expelled from Spain. For Phillip II, Spain had to be entirely Catholic.
$1.25
Monday, August 7, 1556
Vol XCIII, No. 311
"Phillip the Prudent"
Profile
Showing Catholicism in different ways
Religious Mind
Just like Charles, he was deeply religious and was going to defend the Catholic church.
Deeply suspicious - didn`t trust anyone
Tried to do everything himself
Very prudent when making major decisions
Aggressive when in need to protect the state
Phillip II wanted to show that his empire was Catholic and that he would follow the steps of Isabella and Ferdinand. As they started the Spanish Inquisition army, he would start the Spanish Armada.
The Spanish Armada was planned to reinstate Catholicism throughout Europe, this is why it was called "The Reconquista"
The Escorial, was a Palace made to reflect the power of the empire and also to reflect the support of the empire to the Catholic church - there was a monastery inside the Escorial palace.
Phillip II of Spain
Inflation is a serious matter...
The Empire Weakens
The gold and silver (wealth) helped cause long - term economic problems.
These economic problems caused
inflation.
Inflation is the decline in the value of money and generally comes with the rise of prices of goods and services.
The growth of the population increased the demand but did not increase the supply of goods.
The overproduction and oversupply of silver made its price drop.
By expelling the Moriscos (Moors or Muslims) and Jews, Spain lost great artisans and businesses which ended up meaning less taxes for the realm,
Remeber that nobles didn´t pay taxes, only the lower and middle class as well as business owners. Less taxes means less money...
Flourishing of the Arts and Literature
The Golden Age
It was during his empire that the Golden Age took place. The arts and literature of Spain flourished into many master pieces we still enjoy nowadays. In literature many new writing techniques took place and many books were banned, like for example El Lazarillo de Tormes, we also have Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra with his Don Quixote, Lope de Vega with his master piece Fuenteovejuna. All of these books reflect the reality and society of that time.
Difference between the Spanish and Dutch
Spanish / Dutch
The Spanish realm is 100% Catholic. They are having a declining economy.
They don´t have a developing middle class since most of their middle class was expelled.
The Dutch are mostly Calvinist or Protestant. They have a prosperous economy and organized middle class.
They are very unhappy of being a colony of Spain.
Flourishing of the Arts and Literature
The Golden Age
The art created in the golden age has been the inspiration for many Fine Art artists like Picasso. One of the embodiments of the Golden Age artists is Diego Rodriguez de SIlva y Velasquez.
Most artists at that time would paint nobles and commoners, landscapes, classical mytholgy but what they mostly painted were scenes from the Bible.
What made Velasquez the embodiment of the Golden Age was the reality of his painting.
Start declining
The Guilds
The guilds or businesses at that time, used old fashioned methods compared to their neighbours.
Guilds normally manufactured cloths and silverware. Since they didn´t have the technology to make them in a cheaper way their prices were more expensive than buying cloths from France, England and the Netherlands.


Reasons for their discontent...
The Dutch
There were many reasons for their discontent but the main ones were the taxes raised by Phillip.
Phillips intolerance with the Dutch´s religion (they were mostly Protestant). The Dutch start revolting and swept Catholic Churches.
Phillip sends an army under the Duke of Alva - he excecuted 1500 protestants and rebels in 1 day.
This lasted for almost 11 years, fighting and wars and thousands of lifes lost.
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