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Isaiah in the New Testament
Transcript of Isaiah in the New Testament
Cheryl Gaughan A Little Bit about Isaiah Latter Prophets Latter Prophets Continued Fun Facts Continued 3 Ways the New Testament
Refers to the Old Testament Fun Facts Features of Quotations The prophet Isaiah is the first of four Major Prophets along with Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel in Hebrew Scripture.
He lived during the time of the prophets Amos, Hosea, and Micah. Isaiah is the first of the 16 Latter Prophets.
The Latter Prophets began their writings during the Divided Kingdom and foresaw the collapse of Israel and Judah. The Latter Prophets’ writings continued through the Babylonian Exile (586-516 BC) to the period of the Restoration. Every Gospel writer quotes Isaiah in the first chapter of his work.
Isaiah 40:3 is quoted in Mark 1:3, Luke 1:76 and John 1:23; Isaiah 7:14 appears in Matthew 1:23
Nearly every New Testament writer refers to Isaiah
Philemon, 2 John and 3 John do not refer to Isaiah. 1. Quotations
3. Motifs or Themes Introductory Formula: ex. "As it is written..." or "In order that it might be fulfulled..."
Materials from several Old Testament books are often linked together. ex. Romans 3:10
Paul quotes Psalms, Isaiah, and Proverbs without separation. The book of Isaiah is referred to more than 400 times in the New Testament.
The second most referred book from the Old Testament (Psalms is first)
56 of Isaiah's 66 chapters are referred to in the New Testament.
(Chapters 3-4, 15-18, 20, 31, 36, and 39 are not referred to) Quotations Continued New Testament writers often conflate Old Testament veses.
Combine 2 or more texts or ideas into 1
Portions of these verses are take and from different contexts and combined to create a new meaning.
Ex. Paul weaves together Isaiah 28:16 and 8:14 into Romans 9:33 Start with Quotations
Quotation that varies widely from traditional text= Allusion
Repeated use of allusions with a central theme= Motif How Isaiah is Viewed Judaism: Isaiah is valuable, but found its worth in the context of the law as revealed in the Pentateuch.
Christianity: Isaiah found its importance in terms of its relationship to what God had accomplished in Jesus Christ. Varied Uses of Isaiah... The use of Isaiah by New Testament writers can reveal the developing thought and interests of the early church
Ex. Use of Isaiah 6:9-10:
In John 12:40 it is used to explain why the Jews did not respond to the mission of Jesus
In Acts 28:26-27 it is used to justify Paul's turning to the Gentiles
In Mark 4:12 it is stated as the reason for Jesus' use of parables. Uses of Isaiah Isaiah is most frequently used in reference to two New Testament themes:
1. The manifestation and suffering of the Messiah
2. The fortunes of the people of God The Suffering Messiah Early Christians saw the death of Christ clearly portrayed in Isaiah 52:13-53:12
No confusion on the identity of the "servant" in the minds of the New Testament writers
Christians used the above mentioned verse as a point of reference for their view of a suffering Messiah (concept Jews didn't understand)
Also used as a positive proclamation of the death of Jesus as redemptive (used by Philip to the Ethiopian eunuch)
Other passages that are often used in relation to the suffering and messiahship of Jesus are 42:1-44:5; 49:1-13; 50:4-11; 58:6-10; and 60:1-2 Importance The use of Isaiah in the New Testament shows how the understanding of the Old Testament was governed by the commitment to Jesus.
By looking at the Old Testament through the light of Jesus, Christians can further their understanding of Christ. Uses of Isaiah Question 1 Why do you think there were attempts to reduce the Old Testament to a sub-Christian level (less important than the New Testament)? Question 2 Do you think Marcion was wrong in his portrayal of God in the Old Testament? If so, why? How would you characterize God in the Old Testament? Give evidence. Question 3 What do you think motivated the church to retain the Old Testament? Question 4 What are the categories that represent how the Old Testament is used in the New Testament? Question 5 What are the differences between how Christians and Jews view and interpret Isaiah? Question 6 Isaiah is used the most in relation to what two New Testament themes? Can you think of any other themes for which Isaiah is used? Question 7 Why is it important for Christians to reclaim and recognize the book of Isaiah as Christian scripture? Question 8 Do you think it's a theological issue that the New Testament writers take verses that were written in different contexts (either from the same or different Old Testament books) and put them together to create new meanings? Why or why not? Is this a Problem? Some believe that the different uses take away from the unity of the Old Testament
HOWEVER, the church's use of Isaiah was in the context of what had been accomplished in Jesus
Isaiah is used to clarify, explain, and justify this event.