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ABC's of 8th Grade Science
Transcript of ABC's of 8th Grade Science
A compund that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
Force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object.
A characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a specific change to different substances.
C: Chemical Properties
ABC's of 8th Grade Science
Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.
An element is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same atomic number.
The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass.
A mixture in which different parts are seen.
H: Heterogeneous Mixture
English physicist who contribued to the atomic theory.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
J: John Dalton
Isotopes are atoms of the same element can have different number of neutrons.
I: Isotopes & Ions
English physicist and mathmetician
How shiny or dull a substance is.
A physical property: describes substance
Metals have luster rather than non-metals.
Example: A nickel has luster but not a wooden table.
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature.
Father/Creator of the Period Table: Dmitri Mendeleev
P: Periodic Table
Optics is the study of the properties and applications of light.
Quarks make up protons and neutrons.
Protons and neutrons are made up of 3 quarks.
A force called the strong nuclear force holds the quarks together.
There are six kinds of quarks - up quarks, down quarks, strange quarks, charm quarks, bottom quarks, and top quarks. Their names don't really mean anything, just that they are different kinds of quarks.
Radiation is the transfer of electromagnetic waves.
Sources of radiation come from many places including the whole entire electromagnetic spectrum.
Radio waves Microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays.
Main radiation is from the sun.
Speed is the distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion is curved.
Thermal energy is the amount of average kinetic energy.
T: Thermal Energy
U: Ultraviolet Rays
Volume describes the amount of space an object occupies.
X-Rays are a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Yttrium is a chemical element.
Zinc is a metallic chemical element
There are 90 naturally occurring kinds of atoms. Scientists in labs have been able to make about 25 more.
Atoms are made up of 3 subatomic parts: protons, neutrons, and electrons
It's pH is greater than 7.
It's bitter, slippery, and corrosive.
Interaction between two different substances.
Examples are combustiblity, flammability, ability to react to acid/base and to air/water.
Formula: d= m/v
Independent on the amount of substance
Characteristic property used to identify substance
Units: g/cm3 or g/mL
Density of water: 1.00 g/mL
There are 115 elements currently discovered.
Periodic Table organizes all elements by mass.
Elements are chemically the simplest substances and cannot be broken down using chemical methods.
Formula : F = ma
Measured in Newtons
Newton's Second Law: the force equals mass times acceleration. An object accelerates because a force acts on it. The larger the mass, the greater force needed to accelerate it.
The greater the masses and smaller the distance, the greater the gravitational pull. The greater the distance, the weaker the force.
Newton found that the strength of the gravitational force between two objects depends on two things: mass and disance.
Examples: salad, pizza
Properties: separated by filtration, large particles
Ions are atoms that gain or lose electrons. An atom that gains an electron will have a negative charge and become a negative ion. An atom that loses an electron will have a positive charge and become a positive ion.
Isoptopes and ions are possible different variations of an atom.
All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Unit symbol: K
It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units.
Celcius to Kelvin conversion
A metalloid is a chemical element that has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals.
Metalloids are also semiconductors.
On the periodic table, these metalloids are found along the stair-step or bold line that separates the metals from non-metals.
Newton is also a unit of measurement for force.
Developed the Law of Universal Gravitation
Created the 3 Laws of Motion: Inertia, F= ma, & every action has an equal reaction.
Plane, convex, and concave mirrors all reflect light.
Light travels in straight lines and when it strikes a substance, it can be refracted, diffracted, or reflected.
Organized all elements by atomic mass.
Each line or row in the Periodic Table is called a period and indicates the number of energy levels found in an atom.
Each column is called a group/family.
Formula: average speed= distance/time
How fast or slow traveled at a certain distance
It can conduct well through glass and metals and insulate through wood and rubber.
It travels in 3 ways: Radiation, Conduction, and Convection
It's measured in joules.
Ultraviolet Light Waves are a part of the electrmagnectic spectrum.
Too much is harmful to skin, can cause cancer
The sun is a the main source of this light.
A graduated cylinder is used to measure volume.
It's a general property which describes matter but does not identify.
One milliliter is equal to one cubic centimeter.
Water displacement is used to find volume of irregular objects.
Measured in newtons.
Weight is a measure of gravitational force between the earth and an object on the earth's surface.
Weight differs based on location.
Example: 100 lbs. on Earth
17 lbs. on the moon
Used to see in a person's body by sending light which diffracts.
If a person have been in X-rays too many times, it will harm them.
Discoverer: Johan Gadolin
It has often been classified as a "rare earth element.
It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides.
Atomic number: 39
It's used in sunscreen and mostly galvanizing.
It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table.
Atomic number: 30