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Chemical Bonding Project By Alex Kinsey

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Alex Kinsey

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Chemical Bonding Project By Alex Kinsey

Chemical Bonding Project
By Alex Kinsey Ionic Bonds form when electrons transfer resulting in positive and negative ions. The purpose of ionic bonding is to get two atoms to have a full outer shell of valence electrons. This creates a positive metal cation, and a negative non- metal anion. Ionic bonds can also form between two polyatomic ions, or a metal and a polyatomic ion. This type of bond requires massive amounts of both kinds of ions. Ionic compounds also form crystal lattices which play a huge role in determining certain properties of ionic compounds.Examples of ionic bonds include: sodium chloride (table salt), potassium fluoride, and magnesium oxide. Ionic Bonding Lewis Diagrams for Molecular Compounds Metallic bonding occurs between two metal atoms. In metallic bonding, the valence electrons are not held very strongly by their atoms, and the atoms have vacant valence orbitals. Because of this, the valence electrons are free to move about between the atoms. This results in a sea of electrons around the positive nuclei. These electrons are what hold the structure together. This mobility of valence electrons creates properties such as: flexibility, malleability and ductility. These properties are what make metals very useful in society today. Jewelry and other metal items rely on metallic bonding. Metallic Bonding Covalent Bonding Covalent bonds form when non- metal atoms come together to share electrons, forming molecular compounds. This happens because both atoms have relatively high electronegativities, so neither atom will gain electrons, but rather, will share electrons. The goal of covalent bonding is to fill outer energy levels with valence electrons. The bond may be polar or non- polar depending on the difference in electronegativities. Polar molecules have a difference of greater than 0 and less than 1.6. Non- polar molecules have an electronegativity difference of 0. Examples of molecular compounds include: CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2O (water), and CH4 (methane). These particular compounds often form covalent network crystals. This diagram shows the "sea of electrons" that engulfs the positive nuclei during metallic bonding. When molecular compounds form, they share electrons. However, not all molecular compounds look the same due to the VSEPR theory. The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory is put in place to help scientists determine the bond angles that form when molecular compounds form. This theory essentially determines the shape that a molecule will have and therefore, determines certain properties of that molecule. There are 5 common shapes: tetrahedral, pyramidal, trigonal planar, angular and linear. The shapes are determined based on how many bonding pairs of electrons and how many lone pairs of electrons there are in a molecule after bonding. Usually the molecular shapes correspond with a particular period in the periodic table. Group 13 elements form trigonal planar, group 14 form tetrahedral, group 15 form pyramidal, group 16 form angular, and group 17 form linear. This is not always true and can change when double or triple bonds occur between elements. Common Molecular Shapes Molecular shapes based on number of bonding pairs and lone pairs. Ionic compounds sometimes form a crystal lattice shape. This is because the different charges between ions results in an atrraction between the opposites. This means that the cation will be attracted to the anion and vice versa. It causes the ions to arrange in a shape that allows opposites to attract. This shape is a crystal lattice. In a crystal lattice, each ion is always attached to many ions of the opposite charge. Crystal Lattice Formation Examples of Ionic Substances There are many household items that are examples of ionic substances. These include: sodium fluoride- toothpaste, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), citric acid (orange juice), sodium hydroxide (drain cleaner), and the list goes on. These regular household items are examples of ionic substances found in your home. There are also some industrial uses of ionic substances. Ceramics are an example of ionic substances. For example, alumina is a ceramic made up of aluminum and oxygen ions. It is because of this ionic bonding that ceramic structures are very hard and have a high compressive strength. These are just some household and industrial examples of ionic substances. Ionic substances are everywhere and serve many uses in the world today. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_structure http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081130130253AAywZJj http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/ceramic.htm Many household products are actually molecular substances. The most common examples are propane, water and sucrose. These items are used daily by many people around the world. Oil companies deal with methane (natural gas) which is also a molecular substance. One industrial and natural example of a molecular substance is some materials composing wood. Wood is made of mainly cellulose held together by lignin. Plywood is a very important building material and wood from trees are found everywhere in nature. This is just one example of many composite materials made up of molecular compounds. Glass as well as concrete are also examples of composite materials. All these materials are composed of molecular substances and are things that we see everyday. Examples of Molecular Substances Sodium chloride is a very common ionic compound. It is an easy compound to use to represent properties of all ionic compounds. Sodium is a metal with a boiling point of 883 degrees celsius and a melting point of 97.8 degrees celsius. Chlorine is a non- metal with a boiling point of -34 degrees celsius and a melting point of -101 degrees celsius. To form a compound the ions of these elements come together and often form a crystal lattice. When this is done they have specific properties representative of most other ionic compounds. These properties include: hard, brittle, medium to high boling point, and conductive in solution. This example is specific to sodium chloride however, many ionic compounds are similar to this. Ionic Compounds- Sodium Chloride Composition of wood which is composed of some molecular substances. There are many elements on Earth and all have different properties. It is these properties that determine how they will react with other elements and what compounds they will form. Metals and non-metals will form ionic compounds, and non- metals with non- metals will form molecular compounds. Just as each individual element has unique intramolecular forces, each ionic and molecular compound also has unique properties. These properties are dependent on the intermolecular forces that are formed between atoms. These intermolecular forces as well as intramolecular forces determine properties such as boiling point, melting point, solubility, etc. There have been many models created to help explain and illustrate bonding. Observable models have helped scientists gain a good understanding of bonding today. With this knowledge, we have discovered that everything around us is made up of atoms. There are many different molecular and ionic substances around us everyday. As research about bonding continues, we will learn more about the world around us. Summary http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_material http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20091205121348AAmDtTF F. Jenkins, H van Kessel, D. Tompkins and O. Lantz (2007). Nelson Chemistry Alberta 20-30. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/lewis.html Pure carbon forming a diamond. This is an example of a covalent network of carbon. http://www.ausetute.com.au/covalent.html
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