Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Effects of Bilingualism on Executive Function
Transcript of Effects of Bilingualism on Executive Function
What is executive function? marshals high level processing systems and helps develop strategies for an individual when encountering a new situation (Breedlove, Rosenzweig, Watson, & Rosenzweig, 2007) INTRODUCTION
STUDIES WITH INFANTS
CONCLUSION What are the implications of current findings? global community
cognitive understandings Peal and Lambert (1962)
Barik and Swain (1976)
Diaz (1985) Kovács and Mehler (2009a) Weikum et al. (2007) Kovács and Mehler (2009b) Walch, Chaudhary, Herold, and Obladen (2009) Bosch and Sebastián-Gallés (1997) REFERENCES
Barik, H. C., & Swain, M. (1976). A longitudinal study of bilingual
and cognitive development. International Journal of
Psychology, 11(4), 251-263.
Bialystok, E., & Martin, M. M. (2004). Attention and inhibition in
bilingual children: Evidence from the dimensional change card
sort task. Developmental Science, 7(3), 325-339.
Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control
in the bilingual mind. Child Development, 70(3), 636-644.
Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive
control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures.
Cognition, 112(3), 494-500.
Bialystok, E. (2010). Global–local and trail-making tasks by
monolingual and bilingual children: Beyond inhibition.
Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 93-105.
Bosch, L., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2001). Early language
differentiation in bilingual infants. In J. Cenoz, & F. Genesee
(Eds.), Trends in bilingual acquisition. (pp. 71-93). Amsterdam,
Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Bosch, L., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (1997). Native-language
recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual
and bilingual environments. Cognition, 65(1), 33-69.
Breedlove, S. M., Rosenzweig, M. R., Watson, N. V., & Rosenzweig,
M. R. (2007). Biological psychology: An introduction to
behavioral, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience (5th ed.).
Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates.
Carlson, S. M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2008). Bilingual experience and
executive functioning in young children. Developmental
Science, 11(2), 282-298.
Diaz, R. M. (1985). Bilingual cognitive development: Addressing
three gaps in current research. Child Development, 56(6), 1376-
Gervain, J., & Mehler, J. (2010). Speech perception and language
acquisition in the first year of life. Annual Review of Psychology,
Kovács, Á M., & Mehler, J. (2009a). Cognitive gains in 7-month-old
bilingual infants. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(16), 6556-
Kovács, Á M., & Mehler, J. (2009b). Flexible learning of multiple
speech structures in bilingual infants. Science, 325(5940), 611-
Peal, E., & Lambert, W. (1962) The relation of bilingualism to
intelligence. Psychological Monographs, 76 (546), 1-23.
Siegal, M., Iozzi, L., & Surian, L. (2009). Bilingualism and
conversational understanding in young children. Cognition,
Sun, J., Mohay, H., & O'Callaghan, M. (2009). A comparison of
executive function in very preterm and term infants at 8
months corrected age. Early Human Development, 85(4), 225-
Walch, E., Chaudhary, T., Herold, B., & Obladen, M. (2009). Parental
bilingualism is associated with slower cognitive development i
n very low birth weight infants. Early Human Development,
Werker, J. F., & Byers-Heinlein, K. (2008). Bilingualism in infancy:
First steps in perception and comprehension. Trends in
Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 144-151.
Weikum, W. M., Vouloumanos, A., Navarra, J., Soto-Faraco, S.,
Sebastián-Gallés, , Núria, & Werker, J. F. (2007). Visual language
discrimination in infancy. Science, 316(5828), 1159.
Experiment 1 & 4 monolingual and bilingual infants
Training sentences: Italian
14 sentence blocks: Catalan/Spanish Experiment 2 & 5 monolingual and bilingual infants
Training sentences: English
14 sentence blocks: Catalan/Spanish Experiment 3 monolingual only
Training Sentences: Italian
Lower Frequency Experiment 6 bilingual only
Training sentences: English
14 sentence blocks: Catalan/Spanish/Italian French Immersion School in Canada
Kindergarten - 4th grade
IQ measures English as a secound language program
Kindergarten and 1st grade
Language proficiency and cognitive tests The Bilingual Enviroment Exposed to two languages on a consistent basis vs. just outside the home Biligualism through every life stage Areas with in Executive Functions conflict monitoring
(Bialystok, 1999 & 2010; Carlson & Meltzoff 2008; Kovács & Mehler, 2009a)
(Bialystok, 1999; Kovács & Mehler, 2009a)
(Sun, Mohay, & O'Callaghan, planning (Kovács & Mehler, 2009a; Sun,
Mohay, & O'Callaghan, 2009)
(Kovács & Mehler, 2009a; Sun, Mohay, & O'Callaghan, 2009)
(Bialystok & Martin, 2004; Bialystok & Viswanathan, 2009; Carlson &
Meltzoff 2008; Kovács & Mehler, 2009a; Sun, Mohay, & O'Callaghan,
(Bialystok & Viswanathan 2009)
(Bialystok & Viswanathan 2009) Evaluates current levels of conflict, then passes this information on to centers responsible for control, triggering them to adjust the strength of their influence on processing Cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things A buffer that holds memories available for ready access during performance of a task The stopping of an ongoing process or the prevention of a process from starting Executing an automatically-cued response methodological shortcomings and did not look at socioeconomic status or socio-cultural variables
Aims: look at the influence on parental bilingualism on cognitive development Results: parental bilingualism is associated with slower cognitive development in very low birth weight infants during the first two years of life Forseeing a sequence of actions Aims: Is there a difference in the executive function ablities in preverbal monolingual and bilingual infants? Results: Unlike monolingual infants, bilingual infants can inhibit a previously learned response Aims: Can monolingual and bilingual infants discriminate between different languages? Results: Both monolingual and bilingual infants can discrimiate between two langues at 6 months
Only the bilingual infants were able to at 8 months Aims: Are bilingual infnats better at learning multiple speech stuctures then monolignuals? Results: "Bilinguals may aquire two languges in the time in which monlinguals aquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners" Aims: Can infants identify their maternal language? Results: No preference was found for bilingual infants By Tessa Bordiano Thank you the ability to switch between tasks