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William the Conqueror
Transcript of William the Conqueror
William's life in Normandy
William the conqueror, or William I was born in 1028 in Falaise, Normandy (modern France), he was born the illegitimate son of Robert of Normandy, and when his father died, he became duke of Normandy at age 8. William was helped lead by his uncle and the king of France Henry I, who in 1043 knighted William.
As duke William beat several rebellions inside Normandy as well as defeating many threats from enemies outside of Normandy. One of these threats was Henry I himself, who tried to invade Normandy. In 1051 William married Matilda of Flanders, using his military prowess and reputation to negotiate the marriage.
In 1051 William was also promised the English throne by Edward the Confessor, the childless king of England and distant cousin of William. When Edward died in 1066, Harold I claimed the throne and took leadership of the English Kingdom. William was furious that he had been usurped and planned to take a Norman Army across the English Channel and invade England. William had approval from both the Papal states and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Battle of Hastings
William took a Norman army across the channel while Normans invaded northern England, Harold marched north and defeated the Normans before turning around and marching south to face William, Harold's troops were very fatigued from marching, however he had 500 housecarls on his side, considered the toughest fighters in Europe. What followed is known as the Battle of Hastings. In the battle Harold was struck by an arrow and then slain by William's cavalry, his death shattering his army's morale and causing them to flee, only to be run down by charging cavalry. William after winning the battle marched for England's capital, London.
The Bayeux Tapestry
The Bayeux Tapestry is an artwork
created by the Normans after their victory at the battle of Hastings. This is a reliable source, as it was painted directly after the conquest based on eye witnesses. It is said that William's half brother Bishop Odo of Bayeux ordered the tapestry to be created, to try and capture the Norman's glory for future historians. The tapestry is 229 feet and provides historians many pieces of information of William's quest to conquer England, including scenes before and after the battle.
After winning the Battle of Hastings, William marched on unchallenged and claimed the throne, being crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster abbey. As king, William defeated several rebellions including some from Harold I's sons. He also went to war several times, defeating the Scottish and the Danes. William I's final campaign was in France, where he fell off his horse and died in 1087. However, war was not the only thing William did as king, William also excelled in his management of his Kingdom, turning England into one of the most powerful nations of the time and allowing it to be the kingdom it is today.
Matilda of Flanders
Westminster abbey, London
The Domesday book was a survey of which William I administrated in 1085-86. The purpose of this survey was to discover how much wealth lords in England had, how much their manor was worth and how much they owed in tax. This book was used by William to help him find out how much land he had to give away, how much tax he could charge and how big an army did he need to defend his people. The book is considered an outstanding feat of organisation, because of how quickly and thoroughly the survey was completed. This source is very reliable as William had it made for his own personal use, therefore he would make it as accurate as possible. This book is useful to historians to help them find the history of certain places in England, as well as assess the state England was in, how wealthy parts were and how William dealt with managing his kingdom.
After becoming king, William made an instant impact on England society. Changes he made included the introduction of Feudalism and a modern castle building regime. Introducing Feudalism was one of William I's greatest achievements, Feudalism started in England and later became used all over Medieval Europe as the way of government. Feudalism allowed William to govern the whole of England easily, by dividing up sections and "giving"them to loyal men, putting each in charge of his section.
William's second achievement was his castle building regime. This fortified England, making it a strong military nation, William also built the tower of London, a famous attraction for people in the modern world.
William the Conqueror will be forever known for his famous invasion of England. Being the first king, William set the path for the future of England to progress into the formidable nation it became. William created the Feudal system, which united his people and gave him wealth to create an army and build great castles, making England a military force for years to come. Every king and queen of England, including Elizabeth II is a direct descendant of William as well. William is known as a strategist, both in battle and while managing England. His management, including the creation of the Domesday book and the Feudal system has formed England into one of the most powerful nations in the modern world.
Queen Elizabeth II
William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England
David C. Douglas
William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England
is a book on how William I and his Norman followers changed and impacted England, this Secondary source is reliable, as David C. Douglas researched many sources to try and give readers an accurate reenactment of the actions carried out by William. The perspective of which the book was written is was to inform readers and glorify the Normans by reciting their actions and the consequences of these actions. This source is very useful for historians beginning to research the actions and impact of William the conqueror after the invasion of England.
Bates, David, 2004, William the Conqueror, Phillips
Douglas, David, 1967, William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England, University of California Press, Berkeley
Fry, P, 1999, Kings and Queens of England and Scotland, Darling Kindseley books, London.
Howarth, David, 1981, 1066- The Year of the Conquest, Penguin Books
Unknown Author, "William I" http://www.royal.gov.uk/historyofthemonarchy/kingsandqueensofengland/thenormans/williamitheconqueror.aspx, 2008, viewed on 21st March
John Simkim, "The Bayeux Tapestry" http://spartacus-educational.com/MEDbayeux.htm, 1997, viewed on 22nd March
"William the Conqueror" 2015 http://www.biography.com/people/william-the-conqueror-9542227 Accessed 22nd March
"William I" 2014, http:www.historylearningsite.co.uk.william_the_conqueror.htm viewed on 25th March