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Network Infrastructure

A history of the Internet and computer networking
by

Justin D Kintzele

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Network Infrastructure

Network Infrastructure

A Brief History of the Internet
Systems Development Life Cycle
Conclusion
Networks can be complicated. But when you choose the right tool for the job things become more manageable.
1969
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was formed.

Packet switching was born.

Early routers are deployed on the west coast.

Request for Comments (or RFC) notes were established as an informal and fast way of distributing notes to other network researchers
1970
The ARPANET network reaches the east coast of the U.S.
1973
A transatlantic satellite link
connects the Norwegian Seismic
Array (NORSAR) to the ARPANET, making Norway the first country outside the US to be connected to the network


… email constitutes 75% of ARPANET traffic


FTP is defined in RFC 114
Standards
As we learned, standards developed by the IEEE, IETF, OSI & TCP/IP models have helped to shape the way new systems and network infrastructures are designed, built, managed, and administered.
Models
By the use of models such as the OSI model and Systems Development Life Cycle, engineers and administrators can take a seemingly complex task and break it down into manageable pieces.
Success
Successful businesses require a stable and reliable network infrastructure to support their systems, customers, and business endeavors.
1975
ARPANET is declared "operational".
1971
Ray Tomlinson sends the worlds first e-mail
1980
The “802” project is started by
the IEEE (Institute of Electrial and Electronics Engineers) to write the standards for LAN & WAN based communications

Protocols like Ethernet (802.3) and Wireless (802.11) are standardized
as official protocols
1983
The ARPANET splits
with U.S. Military Network
(MILNET)

TCP/IP replaces NCP as the principal protocol suite
on ARPANET
1986
The IETF
(Internet Engineering Task Force)
is formed with the mission:







RFCs become the official publication channel to the global community of
computer network researchers.
1989
TCP/IP gains dominance over OSI protocols when AT&T places the first TCP/IP code developed for UNIX into the public domain
1992
The Internet Society is founded
1995
The
Federal Networking
Council passes a resolution
defining the term
“Internet”
Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model published

The OSI model is born
1984

“To make the Internet work better by producing high quality, relevant technical documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet."
"to promote the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world"
wait, what was the question?
What is the Network Infrastructure?
net·work 'netˌwərk
noun
1. an arrangement of intersecting horizontal and vertical lines.
synonyms: web, lattice, net, matrix, mesh, crisscross, grid, reticulum, reticulation;

2. a group or system of interconnected people or things. "a trade network"
synonyms: system, complex, nexus, web, webwork

a number of interconnected computers, machines, or operations.
"specialized computers that manage multiple outside connections to a network"

a system of connected electrical conductors.

verb
verb: network; 3rd person present: networks; past tense: networked; past participle: networked; gerund or present participle: networking
1. connect as or operate with a network.
"the stock exchanges have proven to be resourceful in networking these deals"
in·fra·struc·ture ˈinfrəˌstrəkCHər
noun
noun: infrastructure; plural noun: infrastructures

1. the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Defines characteristics such as voltage levels and physical connectors. An example of a layer-1 device would be a network cable

Layer 1: Data-Link

Layer 2: Internet
Layer 3: Transport


Layer 4: Application

the TCP/IP model:
Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Planning
Analysis
A computer network or system can be described using abstract layers, such as...
or...
... But whichever of these abstract models we choose, they
serve as a tool that we can use to break down complex networks and systems in to logical, manageable pieces...

(... but in the world of networking, things exist in layers 1 through 4 of the OSI model)
OK we know how to describe the Network Infrastructure now...
... but how does one go about managing all of this complex stuff??
Again, by breaking these complex systems down into logical parts we are able to manage them better.
There are several methods used today, such as...
Network
Design
Model
Planning
... the Network Design model
Forecasting
Dimensioning
Traffic
Engineering
Survivability
... another popular one, the Network Management model
Network
Management
Model
Operation
Administration
Maintenance
Provisioning
... but most of these are just a play on the original...
... that help engineers and administrators to build and manage complex systems.
lets go ahead and take a closer look at some of these layers in the real world...
that looks complicated!
Design elements describe the desired system features in detail, and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables of business rules, business process diagrams, pseudo-code, and a complete entity-relationship diagram with a full data dictionary.

These design elements are intended to describe the system in sufficient detail, such that skilled developers and engineers may develop and deliver the system with minimal additional input design.
7-layers OSI model with sub-layers
Logical Link control
Media Access control
1982 "ARPANET Reference Model"
(RFC 871)

Network Interface


Host-to-Host



Application/Process

or...
The goal of system analysis is to determine where the problem is in an attempt to fix the system.

This step involves breaking down the system in different pieces to analyze the situation, analyzing project goals, breaking down what needs to be created and attempting to engage users so that definite requirements can be defined.
Help Desk - Trouble Ticket System
User Add
Change
Delete requests
Backups
Putting out fires...
During the planning phase, the objective of the project is determined and the requirements to produce the product are considered.
An estimate of resources, such as personnel and costs, is prepared, along with a concept for the new product.
... and the rest is
This layer is closest to the end-user, which means that both the application (layer-5) and the user will interact with a software application.
Responsible for data representation, encryption/decryption, and conversion of data in different formats. ASCII & GIF are layer-6.
This layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions between presentation layer entities. RPC is a layer-5 protocol
Provides reliable internetwork data transport services that are transparent to upper layers. TCP is a layer-4 protocol.
Provides routing and related funcitons that enable multiple data links to b e combined into an internetwork. (routers)
Provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link.
An example of a layer-2 device would be a network switch.
Layer 1: Physical
Layer 2: Data Link
Layer 3: Network
Layer 4: Transport
Layer 5: Session
Layer 6: Presentation
Layer 7: Application
In the OSI or Open Systems Interconnect model, each layer serves the layer above it, and is served by the layer below it.
the 7-layers of the OSI model:
Fully Redundant Hardware = Highly Available SaaS Environment
Economy servers configured redundantly reduce the costs of implementation
While burstable cloud resources increase overall system capacity during peak periods
Add VPN connecitons to other cloud computing services - and your infrastructure becomes nearly limitless!
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