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Unit 3, ch. 13-18 India review

India review, Unit 3, ch. 13-18
by

rich canacci

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Unit 3, ch. 13-18 India review

Chapter 14
Ancient
India
Unit 3
Chapter
13
Geography and the Early
Settlements of India
Unlocking the Secrets of
Mohenjodaro (Mohenjo-Daro)
Chapter 15
Learning About Hindu Beliefs
begins NE high in the Himalayas
floods in lower stages during monsoon season; June - October
mineral rich fertile flood plain eventually flowing into the Ganges
annual rainfall 70-150 inches
temperatures range 45° - 85° F
13.2 Brahmaputra River
begins high in the Himalayas fed by melting ice from glaciers
flows across northern India & through the northern plains where it creates some of the most fertile farmland in the world
annual rainfall 25 - 60 inches
temperature range 55° - 90° F
begins high in the Himalayas & Hindu Kush fed by melting ice
flows across & through Pakistan, empties into the Arabian Sea where in its lower stages it creates some of the most fertile farmland in the world
annual rainfall 5 - 20 inches
temperature range 65° - 90° F
13.8 Indus River
Ganges River
barrier between India & Afghanistan
among the highest ranges in the world with peaks almost 5 miles high
Khyber Pass is the only way through the ranges to India
annual snow/rain 15 inches
temperature range from 25°- 75° F
13.7 Hindu Kush Mountains
13.6 Himalayan Mountains
along the northern border
highest mountain range in the world
natural border blocking off Asia
glacier covered, fierce storms during monsoon season June - October (ten feet of snow @ a time)
annual snow 20 inches
temperatures range from freezing to minus 76° F
geologically active plate boundary
13.4 Eastern & Western Ghats
long V shaped coastal mountain chains
steep slopes, narrow valleys
annual rainfall 100+ inches
temperature range 60° - 90° F
heavy monsoon rains support tropical plants & thick hardwood forests
several fast, rocky, cliff plunging rivers flow through lush green mountains
between Ghat Mountains in the south
flat land with some hilly areas, thin forests & low scrubby bushes
iron rich soil good for growing cotton
dry with few rivers
annual rainfall 30 inches
temperature range 65° - 100° F
SW monsoon season June - October
13.3 Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
NW India
sandy & stoney with little plant life; grass & low hardy shrubs
dust storms are common
many lizards, snakes, birds & gazelles inhabit land
annual rainfall 4 - 20 inches
temperature range 45° - 120° F
rare rain in the monsoon season; June - October
13.9 Thar Desert
Thar Desert
the first Indians settled near rivers which provided plenty of water and some of the most fertile farmland on the planet
first settlements were along the Indus river and the Sarasvati, an ancient river that once flowed through what is now the Thar Desert
settlements sprang up along the Ganges shortly after
by 2500 BC there were walled civilizations in the Indus-Sarasvati floodplain
13.10 Early Settlements in India
14.1 Introduction
Mohenjodaro is located in the Indus River valley
other towns were clustered near the Sarasvati River
Indus-Sarasvati civilization aka the Harappan civilizations after the city of Harappa
these civilizations flourished from 2700 - 1900 BC
in this chapter the daily life of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations, their ruins and artifacts will be studied
VOCABULARY
Mohenjodaro- place or hill of the dead
excavate- dig up
ruins- the physical remains of a city
citadel- military fort
granary- grain storage container
The city was carefully planned
citadel elevated platform above city
streets below were lined with houses & workshops
as many as 50 000 people lived in the city
around 1900 BC the civilizations disappeared and its unknown why
then civilizations began to appear in the Ganges River valley
14.2 The Mystery of Mohejodaro
weights & scales found in ruins
scientists believe they might have used grain, flour as money & for trading
farmers and others outside the city had their own granaries used for trade & even collection of taxes
14.3 Weights & Scales
39 ft. long pool 8 ft. deep built of waterproof brick
dressing rooms circled the pool area
room with a well to provide fresh water
dirty water removed with drain system
used for cooling off, religious ceremonies & bathing rituals often used in India’s major religions
14.4 The Great Bath
in the lower city archeologists found a statue of a man with a short tidy beard, clean upper lip, hair was tied with a band
wearing a patterned robe draped over his shoulder
it appeared to be a priest or king
stone beads were also found in many shapes & colors
archeologists believe they were worn by women as necklace, bracelets, earrings, rings
14.5 Statue & Beads
small stone seals found in large numbers throughout the ruins (over 400 were found)
carved with pictographs & pictures of buffalo, bulls, tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, fish, & crocodiles
small loop on the back made archeologists believe it was either some sort of necklace charm or a tag or stamp pressed into wax to represent who owned them
14.6 Seals
brick wells were located throughout the city for collecting clean water
water fed the sewer system of troughs and pipes that carried waste and dirty water away from the homes of the city to the river
made it possible for all homes to have bathrooms
great achievement, it would be 2000 years before the Romans created another like it
14.7 Sewer System
most houses were in the lower city which was 3 times larger than the Citadel
rows of flat roofed, 2 story, mud brick houses with one to a dozen rooms lining the streets
faced narrow alleys & the back opened to a courtyards
narrow windows with screens made of terra-cotta or alabaster

14.8 Homes
clay toys & game pieces were found
dice, stone balls, grooved clay tracks, stone game boards, children’s toys
the game of chess was invented in India
clay models tell archeologists of the time period
bulls pulling a person in a cart tells of the farmers of the day
14.9 Games / 14.10 Clay Models
Learning About Hindu Beliefs
Ancient India
Unit 3, Chapter 15

vocabulary
Vedas- collection of sacred writings
Sanskrit- ancient Indian language
Brahmanism- ancient religion in which Brahmins are leaders
caste- a class in Hindu society
reincarnation- belief in one’s soul being reborn in a new body
pilgrimage- a journey to a holy place
Hinduism was India’s first major religion
•it influences worship, jobs, diet, art, literature and determines the status of people in society
•Dharma is the belief in law, obligation, and duty
•Ramayana is the sacred text offering models from the life of Rama
15.1 Introduction
“organized” society into social classes, couldn’t change the one you were born into & could only marry in your class
Brahmins (priests & religious scholars)
Kshatriyas (rulers & warriors)
Vaishyas (herders & merchants)
Shudras (servants)
untouchables (lowly or dirty jobs)
15.3 Hinduism and the Caste System
Brahman is the Hindu name for supreme power or divine force
People connect with Brahman through their souls
see time in a circle
temples are built using ancient direction, face east toward the rising sun
visitors meditate, give thanks, make requests, and take part in rituals
15.4 Hindu Beliefs About Brahman
all Deities are different faces of Brahman & control different aspects of the universe
Indra- deity of thunder
Brahma- creates in the universe
Vishnu- preserves in the universe
Shiva- destroys in the universe
15.5 Hindu Beliefs About Deities
Dharma is an idea of law, obligation, & duty to follow one’s Dharma means to live as one should; perform duties
dharma has values sets based on classes & common values for all such as marriage, food sharing, caring for the soul, nonviolence, & respect for all forms of life
15.6 Hindu Beliefs About Dharma
Karma governs what happens to the soul after death
the soul can be reborn but the body it receives would depend on Karma which is made up of all the good & evil one did in past lives; one could move up classes or down or become animals
15.7 Hindu Beliefs About Karma
belief in a continuous cycle of life, birth, death, & rebirth
as long as we are part of Samasara we will know pain & death
when the soul escapes the cycle it is united with Brahman; this may take many lifetimes
to connect with Brahman Indians take pilgrimages to sacred places such as the Ganges or the ancient Sarasvati Rivers
15.8 Hindu Beliefs About Samsara
began before recorded history & developed over time
some believe it began with Aryans others with India’s original settlers
Vedism is Brahmanism which is Vedas are taught by Brahmin & many deities are worshiped
Veda were taught orally and then written down in Sanskrit
15.2 The Origins of Hinduism
Chapter 16
The Story of Buddhism

16.2 Prince Siddhartha’s Birth
before he was born the queen had a dream that was interpreted by Brahmins
the child would be a great man with 2 possible paths, he could be a great ruler or, if he left the royal life and saw the suffering in the world, he would become a Buddha (enlightened one)
at birth the infant prince looked a few years old, could already walk & talk, and spoke these words declaring “I am the leader of the world and the guide to the world”

16.3 The Prince’s Royal Life
the king wanted his son to be a great ruler a and was worried about the Brahmins predictions so he protected his son from the horrors of the world
the prince was provided with only the finest things, servants took care of his every need
at 16 he was married to a beautiful noblewoman and they lived in perfect peace for a dozen years
when he turned 29 they had a son
16.4 The Prince Discovers Three Forms of Suffering
after Siddhartha became a father he began to travel outside the royal palaces
he was deeply troubled by the discovery of aging, sickness and death
he met a man who was an
ascetic (one who gives up worldly possessions to find inner peace and calm)
“To be free of suffering, one must give up the desires, pleasures, and comforts of the world. I find peace by helping others find peace.”
16.5 The Prince Becomes an Ascetic
experiences with suffering changed him forever
he decided to give up his old life & find enlightenment
he met other ascetics and live on
alms (goods given to the poor)
and attempted to reach enlightenment through
meditation (sit quietly & focus the mind on spiritual questions)
he denied his body of many basic needs; sleep, shelter, food for days at a time to find spiritual truth through self-denial
he became unhappy with this way of living and hadn’t yet found enlightenment
16.6 The Prince Becomes the Buddha
Prince Siddhartha decided he would balance himself between the extremes of pleasure & pain and find enlightenment through the “middle way”
at the foot of the Bodhi tree he reached
nirvana (true happiness & peace)
and became the Buddha
the Four Noble Truths he discovered were the basis of his teachings; Buddhism
16.7 The Buddha’s Teachings
behind the idea of the Four Noble Truths is the understanding that all things change
to end suffering one must travel The Eight Fold Path which follows the "middle way"
Buddha could selfishly pass into enlightenment but instead he chose to stay and teach others the path he found
Buddha
Chapter 17
Buddhism and the First
Unification of India
17.1 Introduction
Indian leader, King Ashoka, used Buddhist values to unify India
under the Mauryan Empire (from 322-187 BC) fought wars to build the empire
change came under Ashoka who turned to peaceful ways of keeping India united
seeing his family’s wars kill & enslave numerous people at one battle he swore to give up violence & created an empire based on Buddhist values
he spread Buddhist beliefs through edicts (official messages carved on walls, rocks, & pillars)

17.1 Introduction
Indian leader, King Ashoka, used Buddhist values to unify India
under the Mauryan Empire (from 322-187 BC) fought wars to build the empire
change came under Ashoka who turned to peaceful ways of keeping India united
seeing his family’s wars kill & enslave numerous people at one battle he swore to give up violence & created an empire based on Buddhist values
he spread Buddhist beliefs through edicts (official messages carved on walls, rocks, & pillars)
Mauryan Empire (from 322-187 BC)

17.2 The Mauryas Unify India
Chandragupta Maurya was the first leader to unite India
in the 320s BC the Mauryan Empire united the numerous small northern Indian kingdoms through force
he kept the empire strong through harsh forceful rule, created a strong central government & built thousands of miles of royal roads
towards the end of his life he gave up his power, became an ascetic, lived in poverty & traveled with monks (holy men)
his grandson, King Ashoka, grew the empire even larger
17.3 Ashoka’s Rule
the Mauryan Empire reached its height during King Ashoka’s rule from 269-232 BC
he made a decision to reject violence, embrace Buddhism values of love, peace, & nonviolence becoming a vegetarian, gave up wars of conquest & never again would he fight
Ashoka spread Buddhist values by example beyond India to Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) when he sent his son, Mahinda who converted the king to Buddhism which became the official faith of the island kingdom

17.3 Ashoka’s Rule
the Mauryan Empire reached its height during King Ashoka’s rule from 269-232 BC
he made a decision to reject violence, embrace Buddhism values of love, peace, & nonviolence becoming a vegetarian, gave up wars of conquest & never again would he fight
Ashoka spread Buddhist values by example beyond India to Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) when he sent his son, Mahinda who converted the king to Buddhism which became the official faith of the island kingdom


17.3 Ashoka’s Rule
the Mauryan Empire reached its height during King Ashoka’s rule from 269-232 BC
he made a decision to reject violence, embrace Buddhism values of love, peace, & nonviolence becoming a vegetarian, gave up wars of conquest & never again would he fight
Ashoka spread Buddhist values by example beyond India to Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) when he sent his son, Mahinda who converted the king to Buddhism which became the official faith of the island kingdom
17.4 Ashoka’s Edicts
Ashoka wanted a strong united empire guided by Buddhist values spread to the people through edicts (commands obeyed like law) carved into walls, rocks, pillars in public places to be read by the greatest number of people
Four Goals
Buddhist Values- promoted the Buddha’s teachings
General Welfare- promoted people’s well being
Justice- concerned with fair laws
Security- concerned with enemies of the empire dealt with in peace
Buddhism spread to central Asia, China, Korea, & Japan
16.1 Introduction
the teachings of the Buddha (awakened one)
Siddhartha Gautama lived from 563-483 BC
as a young prince he walked away from his royal life and went into search for spiritual peace
he found great truths that he shared with others which began the religion of Buddhism
Different from Hinduism
not based on rituals or beliefs in many gods, instead it was a way of life
based on simple teachings that embraced all people (no like caste system)
teaches how to reach enlightenment (happiness) through knowledge of deep truth
once enlightenment was reached one’s soul would no longer be reborn
Ch. 18, The Achievements of the
18.1 Introduction
from 320-550 AD the
Golden Age
was
a time of prosperity & achievement
and great advances in arts & sciences
550 AD sacred texts were unearthed
Seven Achievements under the Gupta Empire

18.2 The Rise of the Gupta Empire
Mauryan Empire fell about 187 BC
Gupta Empire arose around 320 AD under Chandragupta I
united the northern kingdoms through wars and alliances by arranging marriages with the sons and daughters of other rulers
set up a central government, a council made up of advisers and members of the royal family to help the king make decisions
local areas had a great deal of independence, divided into
provinces (large areas)
ruled by royal governors, town leaders who could make their own decisions
this strategy helped them remain in power for nearly 230 years of mostly peaceful times which encouraged growth in arts & sciences (Golden Age)

18.3 Universities
Hindu & Buddhist universities were built throughout the empire
Hindu Universities provided the upper classes with training in religion, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, Sanskrit, sculpture, painting, music, and dance
the most famous Buddhist school at Nalanda had 8 colleges and 3 libraries, a hospital and a

monastery (home for monks)

where students were instructed in Buddhist & Hindu philosophy, logic, grammar, and medicine
medical students learned how to make cures from bark, roots, leaves, and minerals
they used the front claws of giant ants to stitch wounds and were especially skilled at surgery
18.4 Literature
Gupta writers created many literary works; poetry, fables, folktales, comedic & dramatic plays, historical & political subjects, etc.
scholars & lawyers wrote about Hindu law & religion
The Puranas (ancient lore)
describe legends & sacred texts orally passed down for generations
Mahabharata (great work)
a poem composed over hundreds of years reached final form, its themes relate Hindu values & battles between good & evil;
Bhagavad Gita (song of the lord)
a poem of basic truths is part of the Mahabharata
Gupta sacred texts influenced cultures as far away as Greece & Persia
the famous Arabian tale of Aladdin and his magic lamp was inspired by a Gupta folktale
18.5 Painting
the wealthy hired artists & their homes all had paintings of deities, royalty, families, or the luxury of noble life
they were often done on scrolls (roll of paper or papyrus)
Ajanta Murals are the most well known; they are wall paintings on 30 caves of an ancient Buddhist monastery in central India that depict scenes from Buddha’s life, Buddhist values, images of kings, queens, musicians, dancers, animals, and hunters in the forest decorated with flowers, trees & fancy patterns
Ajanta Murals
18.6 Sculpture
were created out of stone, wood, bronze, clay & portrayed Buddha & Hindu deities, scenes from important peoples’ lives that were free standing or carved into the walls of caves & temples
the deity Ganga is one of the most famous where she is riding the back of a sea monster
Buddha’s temple statue also reflects attention to beauty and detail

18.7 Metalwork
amazing accomplishment for the time period, still unknown how they acquired the advanced skills
kings controlled gold, copper & iron mines with which they made everything from coins to pillars
a solid iron pillar @ Meharauli stands 25 feet tall & weighs 13 000 lbs. after thousands of years it is almost rust free
18.8 Mathematics
Gupta further advanced Hindu mathematics in several ways
began to use a decimal system that showed “place value” & fractions; first to treat zero as a number
Arabic numerals, which we use today, is a derivative of Gupta mathematics
Gupta mathematician Aryabhata figured out that a year was exactly 365.258 days long, he calculated the approximate size of the Earth, proposed that the planets were all spheres, & was the earliest scientist to suggest that our planet spun on an axis
18.9 Roads
Rulers encouraged trade by building a huge system of well built roads of raised, hard packed, leveled dirt with ditches and drainage canals for runoff water
signs told travelers where they were & distances, rest stops and drinking wells were placed along side
goods were moved from city to city, from the interior of the country to water ways to be shipped, and even to other countries
some roads connected with China and even the eastern Mediterranean Sea

18.9 Roads
Rulers encouraged trade by building a huge system of well built roads of raised, hard packed, leveled dirt with ditches and drainage canals for runoff water
signs told travelers where they were & distances, rest stops and drinking wells were placed along side
goods were moved from city to city, from the interior of the country to water ways to be shipped, and to other countries
some roads connected with China and even the eastern Mediterranean Sea
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