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Ebola

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jake D'Imperio

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of Ebola

Statistics
Ebola cannot be transmitted until symptoms are present
Ebola: A World on the Run
The History of Ebola
Symptoms
Ripple Effects of Ebola
How to Inform people about Ebola
Ebola has caused some significant effects on economies world wide.
One of the worst hits on an economy is Africa.
Many economic projects have been canceled or cut in half
People in Ameica also have a unessicary fear of Ebola
#Ebolafear
One man inparticular wore a home made hazmat suit
Street plays.
Public service announcements
The internet.
Pamphlets
Ebola was discovered in 1976 by Peter Piot. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (previously known as Zaire).
What is Ebola?
Personal Stories
Ebola: Bioterrorism
Prevention
Practice safe hygiene
Don't handle items that have come in contact with a person's body fluids
Avoid contact with bats and things associated with them
Avoid West African hospitals where Ebola patients are being treated
"A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants." -CDC
Virus that causes hemorrhagic fevers
Part of the virus family Filroviridae
One of three genera:
Cuevavirus
Marburgvirus
Ebolavirus
Five species of ebolavirus have been identified:
Zaire
Bundibugyo
Sudan
Reston
Tai Forest
Native to Africa
Marburg virus is related
The United States
Nigeria: Carving the Mold
Previous outbreaks never exceeded 1000 outbreaks.
Immigration
-Australia
-Senegal
-Guinea, Liberia
and Sierra Leone
Transmission
Thomas Eric Duncan
Ashoka Mukpo
Dr. Nancy Snyderman
Port Health Services introduced contact treatment.
Made a staggering 18,500 face-to-face visits.
Looked into phone records and flight manifests.
Have dealt with 19 confirmed cases but have not faced any in the last month.
Recently Nigeria was declared Ebola Free

Hospitals
80% of hospital had not been informed on Ebola policy.
87% of hospitals not provided with Ebola education
Henry Ulrich
Natural or genetically modified
Goal of terror
Mass chaos and death
Biological warfare
All Victims
(as of 10/22)
Seen throughout history
Russia: Cold war
Secret Division of Gov
Microbes
Purpose?
Aum Shinrikyo: 1992
Congo
In-effective
History of Bioterrorism
How?
Category A Agent
Three Methods
Ebola Bomb
Ebola Suicide Missions
Genetic Modification
Dr. Craig Allen Spencer
Amber Vinson ~
Nina Pham
Thomas Eric Duncan*
Ashoka Mukpo ~
Unknown WHO Worker ~
Dr. Rick Sacra ~
Nancy Writebol ~
Kent Brantly ~
Two Priests (Spain) *
Teresa Romero (Spain) ~
Unknown Patient (Germany *
One Senegalese~ and one Ugandan Man (Germany)
William Pooly (Britain) ~
Unidentified nurse (France )~
Unidentified woman (Norway)
The World Health Organization
(The Ebola Response Roadmap)
Plausibility
"Nature right now, is the worst bioterrorist." -Dr. Anthony Fauci
Potentially devastating effects
Basic Reproduction Number of 2
Small window of action
Transmission problems
Doesn't spread easily
Much better options than Ebola for genetics
The priorities.
Full geographic coverage through infected countries.

The International Stage
The President:
Strengthening borders.
"Take immediate additional steps to ensure hospitals and health care providers nationwide are prepared to follow protocols should they encounter an Ebola patient."
American Response
Bio terrorism
Fines
Not allowing foreign citizens in for a cure
Experimental Cures
Government
Not governmental
Relief Workers
Treatment
The Plan:
Providing intravenous fluids (IV)and balancing electrolytes (body salts)
Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure
Treating other infections if they occur
Experimental vaccines
Recovery:
Recovery depends on good supportive care and a Patient's immune response.
Patients developing antibodies or immunity.
Long-term complications
KEY
* : Have passed away from Ebola
~ : Ebola free
Africa: Countries fighting Ebola
In Africa, the main countries fighting Ebola are Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.
In all three countries, a minimum of one-thousand people are infected with Ebola at any point. Collectively, there are nearly 14,000 cases of Ebola currently in Africa.
Due to a lack of hospitals and public sanitary aid in Africa, the countries fighting Ebola heavily rely on international aid.
Relief efforts since the beginning of 2014 have started, such as over 19 emergency shipments, each valuing over 7 million dollars of medical and sanitary equipment, being shipped to over 1,000 hospitals in Liberia and sierra Leone.
Yet countries such as Nigeria have been deemed Ebola free by practicing immediate and strict sanitary and quarantine methods, to have their country be deemed Ebola free by the World Health Organization.
Sources
CNN.com
http://www.ny1.com/content/news/eye_on_ebola/217506/eye-on-ebola--staten-island-liberian-community-feels-ripple-effects-of-ebola-crisis/
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/preparedness/planning-tips-top10.html
http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2014/10/23/why-americans-have-irrational-ebola-fears/38DRvAtA5sF3KTUCQYPcPP/story.html
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/09/ebolas-ripple-effects/
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/101314/ebolas-economic-impacts-liberia-sierra-leone-and-guinea.asp
http://www.cdph.ca.gov/Pages/NR14-087.aspx
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/history/distribution-map.html
http://www.apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137185/1/roadmapupdate25Oct14eng.pdf?ua=1
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/preparedness/planning-tips-top10.html
http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/17/politics/ebola-travel-ban-unprecedented/index.html?iid=article_sidebar
http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/20/world/africa/ebola-liberia-orphans/index.html?iid=article_sidebar
http://www.leoaffairs.com/news/maine-governor-sends-state-police-keep-quarantined-nurse-home/
http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/01/health/ebola-outbreak/
http://www.bbc.com
http://www.healthmap.com
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/prevention/index.html?s_cid=cs_284
Ebola is transmitted through animals, direct contact, bodily fluids, or objects such as syringes and needles.
Confused for flu and malaria
Mainly attacks immune system, liver, blood vessels
Takes strong immune system to fight off
Sources
"Bioterrorism Overview." CDC. CDC Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB), Division of Emergency, 12 Feb. 2007. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
Evans, Nicholas G. "Ebola Is a Lousy Bioweapon. Fear Is Much More Effective." Slate Magazine, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.
Maron, Diane F. "Weaponized Ebola: Is It Really a Bioterror Threat?" Scientific American Global RSS. N.p., 25 Sept. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.
MacNeil, Caitlin. "NIH Official Dismisses Fox Host's Question On Ebola As Bioterrorism." TPM. N.p., 5 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.
Vlahos, Kelley Beaucar. "Could Ebola Virus Become 'bioterrorist Threat'?" Fox News. FOX News Network, 17 Oct. 2014. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
Three possible discoveries of vaccinations for Ebola:
ZMapp (more of a therapy)
Still in experimental stage
Government involvement
World Health Organization
Estimated production date
In midst of first trial
Scientists in Canada
Successful cure in monkeys
Antibodies that correspond to the proteins on the shell of the virus
Monitoring at Airports
Against Travel Ban
Offers 3 Day Course on Ebola Treatment
4 Hospitals with High Level Bio-Containment Units
Response Teams

CDC
Kaci Hickox
Monitor airports and halt international flights.
Cognizant Communication
Full transcript