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Chapters 16-18 of To Kill A Mockingbird
Transcript of Chapters 16-18 of To Kill A Mockingbird
Chapter 17 Questions and Answers
Q6: "The court appointed Atticus to defend him. Atticus aimed to defend him. That's why they didn't like about it. It was confusing." (p.163) Clarify the situation in your own words, showing why Scout was confused.
‘Mr.Cunninghams basically a good man, he just has blind spots along with the rest of us.” (page 157 chapter 16)
Speaker: Atticus Finch
Speaking to: Jem and Scout
Theme: The need for conscience and personal integrity
Significance: Atticus points out that even a good person can have their views altered by the opinions of society and people around them. This is what led to Walter almost doing something he would never normally do.
By Maddie & Jennifer
Chapters 16-18 of To Kill A Mockingbird
1Q: Harper Lee alludes to the mad dog incident (p.156). Find and record the quotation. What is the allusion and why does she use it?
A1: The quotation she alludes the mad dog situation to is, ""You know, its a funny thing about Braxton,' said Atticus. "He despises Negroes, won't have one near him.'" (p.156) The allusion is that the mad dog situation is being compared to Tom Robinson's situation, whom Scout and Jem's father Atticus is defenending in court. She uses this allusion because she is trying to show how Braxton despises Negroes so much, that he would rather shoot one than have one near him.
Q4: What does Atticus tell the children about mobs?
A4: Atticus tells Jem and Scout that a mob is made up of people and being in a mob doesn't say much for those in it. He also says that in a small town like Maycomb, you will always know people involved in one. He also mentions that it took an 8 year old (her), to bring the mob to their senses.
Quotes from Chapter 16
Quotes from Chapter 17 & 18
Questions and Answers for Chapter 18
A6: Atticus was selected to defend Tom Robinson. He had a goal to defend him, just as any body else, and he wanted to do a good job at defending him, attempting to give him as much as a fair trial as possible, despite the fact that it wouldn't be fair (since Tom was black) because it was the good and right thing to do. Scout is confused because she is does not know why they would be upset with her fatherhood doing his job, which was to defend Tom Robinson. She's also confused about why they would assign him Tom's case but end up not being happy with the fact that Atticus was aiming to actually defend Tom.
Chapter 17 Questions and Answers Continued
“Maybe we need a police force of children… you children last night made Walter Cunningham stand in my shoes for a minute. That was enough.” (page 157, chapter 16)
Speaker: Atticus Finch
Speaking to: Jem and Scout
Theme: The need for compassion and tolerance
Significance: Earlier, Mr. Cunningham was ready to lynch Atticus as part of a mob. Scout bringing up his son reminded him that he has a life outside of this act he’s putting on. Against all odds, the innocence of a child is enough to make Mr. Cunningham find mercy within himself, and enough compassion towards Atticus for him to decide to leave Atticus alone.
“The court appointed Atticus to defend him. Atticus aimed to defend him. That’s what they didn’t like about it. It was confusing.” (page 163, chapter 16)
Speaking to: herself
Theme: Innocence and Maturity
Significance: She is too young yet to know of the bias, racism and discrimination that lies within her community. She only sees things in black and white; that her father is only doing what is right. It shows how the wold is so corrupt, it makes the right thing seem wrong.
Q1: Why does Atticus attempt to establish through Sheriff Heck Tate's testimony?
A1: Atticus attempts to establish through Sheriff Heck Tate's testimony because he wants to prove that it was actually not Tom Robinson who hurt/raped Mayella, but somebody else. In order to do that, Atticus needs to gather proof about what Heck Tate is covering up/lying about, so he continuously asks Heck Tate to verify his answers so he can refer back to them in other testimony's to see if they match.
Q2: Describe Bob Ewell's physical appearance as well as personality.
A2: Bob Ewell had a very red face and neck. His hair appeared to be newly washed. His nose was thin, pointy and shiny. He had a chin that seemed to be very much apart of his neck, in which it appeared he had no neck at all. He was a little, white male. Mr. Bob Ewell was very rude as well, and acted like a total smart-ass (excuse my language). Also, when he is first called to the stand, he appears to be nervous and scared.
Q1: What metaphor does Harper Lee use to describe him? Why (p.169- 170) & (p.176)
A3: The metaphor Harper Lee uses to describe Bob Ewell is, "In answer to the clerk's booming voice, a little bantam cock of a man rose and strutted to the stand" (p.169-170) and "He seemed to grow ruddy again; his chest swelled, and once more he was a red little rooster" (p.176). She uses the metaphor of comparing Bob Ewell to a chicken because then we can imagine how he is acting and behaving, which is every time he is put on the spot, he acts like a chicken by turning red and becoming shy, nervous and frightened.
Q4: What was Atticus trying to establish when he asked Mr.Ewell if he would write his name?
A4: When Atticus asked Mr.Ewell to write his name, Atticus is trying to establish weather Bob Ewell is left or right handed. With the information of weather he is left or right handed, Atticus is able to prove (if he is left handed) that Bob may actually be a suspect. It would show that he could be a suspect because Mayella was struck to the right side of her face, meaning someone who is left handed most likely struck her. If there was proof that Mr. Ewell is left handed, it could prove Tom Robinson is innocent since Tom is unable to use his left hand/arm.
Q1: What does Mayella's testimony add to the case?
A1: Mayella's testimony adds emotion, suspicion and compassion to the case. It adds emotion because Mayella describes what supposedly happened to her and we feel bad because she was struck and possibly raped as well. The reason being why it adds suspicion is because we aren't sure weather Mayella is telling the truth due to the fact that she keeps "slipping up" and also, it adds suspicion because we aren't 100% sure who really did it. Finally, it adds compassion because we get a new outlook on how her lifestyle is.
Q2: What do we learn about Mayella's life?
A2: We learn that Mayella is the oldest of 7 children, at the current age of 19 years old. Her mother is dead and has been for quite a long time. She is capable of reading and writing, but only recalls attending school between 2-3 years. Their family's relief check was far from enough to feed the family (meaning they are very poor and most likely unclean as well). We also learned that her father (Bob Ewell), is "tollable" except when he is drinking. The rest of her siblings do not attend school because they're needed at home. Her and her siblings make shoes from old tires. Mayella also doesn't have any friends, let alone know what friends are.
Q3: What slip does she make in her testimony?
A3: The slip that Mayella makes in her testimony is she claimed that she was on the porch when Tom Robinson passed and she asked him to help her with something, then she claims that she fainted once her father came into the room, when her father said something different. He father testified, that he heard Mayella screaming and then looked in the window to see Tom Robinson raping her. Then, he says that he ran into the house to see Mayella on the ground and was unable to run after Tom Robinson, and called Heck Tate instead. Atticus then confuses Mayella and she says, " No, I don't recollect if he hit me or not. I mean, yes I do, he hit me." (p.185) Which is a slip up because at first she says she doesn't know, and then she says he did hit her so then her testimony will appear more like her father's.
“There has been a request, that this courtroom be cleared of spectators, or at least of women and children.” (page 174, chapter 17)
Speaker: Judge Taylor
Speaking to: the courtroom
Theme: Prejudice and discrimination
Significance: Even though rape is a matter that happens to, and affects women, the public still treats them as fragile by saying how women need to be shielded from this graphic topic as much children do. This shows how little their society thinks of women.
“Long’s as he keeps on callin’ me ma’am an sayin’ Miss Mayella. I don’t hafta take his ass, I aint called upon to take it.” (page 182, chapter 18)
Speaker: Mayella Ewell
Speaking to: Judge Taylor
Significance: Mayella can't recognize Atticus's politeness or compassion. That shows just how different her world is from his—neither is something she's had any experience with, and so they're strange to her. Poor Mayella. Even our cold hearts almost feel sorry for her.
Mayella is so used to being disrespected and being treated awfully, when Atticus shows her respect she feels as if its sarcastic.