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Humanistic Approach to Language Teaching

Just doing an experiment from a half complete ppt file. Its my first Prezi :D
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Irtisam Ahmed

on 15 March 2015

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Transcript of Humanistic Approach to Language Teaching

Was well known for person centered Approach
Human beings instinctively value their positive self-regard which means positive self-image or self-esteem, without this positive self regard they feel helpless


Criticism of Maslow’s Approach

Humanistic Approach to Language Teaching

Holistic learning process
Feelings are emphasized along with facts
Students should be given the power to choose what they want to know
Students should be self motivated
Self-evaluation should be prioritized
Teachers should provide a non-threatening environment in a classroom

Basic Principles of Humanistic Education

Carl Rogers developed a model based on humanism which was “facilitative teaching”.
Focused on emotional relationship between teacher and students
The teachers who are more facilitative, they provide non-threatening environment for the students
It is essential for teachers to establish a warmth relationship with students by responding to them, by praising them or being flexible with them

Human beings have natural desire for learning
Significant learning takes place when it involves active participation by the learner
Learning which involves feelings and cognition lasts for long time
Learning makes difference in the behavior, attitude and personality of the learner
threat to the learner’s self-image can hamper the learning process.

Some key elements of the humanistic approach to education

If the basic needs of a person are satisfied
Refreshing consciousness
Teaching people that controls are good
Teaching people to transcend the trifling problems and grapple with the serious problems
Teaching people to be good choosers


Ten Points Maslow thinks educators should address

Teaching people to be authentic
Teaching people to transcend their cultural condition
Helping people to discover their vocation in life
Teaching people that life is precious
Acceptance of self

Ten Points Maslow thinks educators should address

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Extended)

Physiological needs are the most demanding that includes hunger, thirst, shelter
Safety needs include security, protection from physical and emotional harm
Social needs includes the person’s desire to be a part of a family and society and being acceptable
Need for esteem includes self respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition and attention
Self actualization assumes that all the other demands are satisfied and drives a person to use his full potential
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow rejected behaviorist views and Freud’s theories. According to him-

Freud’s view of human nature was negative
Freud concentrated on the mentally ill where Maslow was interested in healthy human psychology


Maslow on previous ideas

Vague about the causes of development

Excessive emphasis on the adolescent period

Only talked about the psychological stages not the psychosexual stages

Criticism of Erikson's theory

Provides a life span view of human psychology and learning
Focusing important tasks of every stage
Indicating what kind of help is necessary in which level
Education is viewed as involving the whole person.

Importance and strength of Erikson's theory

Age : 0-18 month
Crises: whether the child can learn to trust
Virtue : development of hope
Negative result: development of anxiety, insecurity, over feeling

1st stage: Trust vs Mistrust

Each stages of development of human being includes some common issues. These are

Age (physical development)
A crises (challenges from society)
Establishing of a personal quality.
Positive development helps to grow a virtue
The result of negative development


Trust vs Mistrust ( -18 month)
Autonomy vs Shame (18 month-3 year)
Initiative vs Guilt (3-5 year)
Industry vs Inferiority (5-12 year)
Identity vs Role confusion (12-18 year)
Intimacy vs Isolation (18-40 year)
Gnerativity vs Stagnation (40-65 year)
Ego integrity vs Despair (65- )


Eight stages of human life

A crisis occur at every stage.
This crisis are psychosocial in nature.
Successful completion results healthy personality.
Failure can results in development of unhealthy personality and hinder the development of next stage.

Cont:

Leading figure in the development of humanistic approach to education

Founder of counseling psychology

Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Born
: 1908
Died
:1970
Nationality
: American
Fields
: Psychology
Received BA (1930), MA (1931) and PhD (1934) all from University of Wisconsin
Professor at Brooklyn College (1937-51) and Brandeis University (1951-61)
Popular name in the field of Management (Hierarchy of Need )
Father of Humanistic Psychology

Abraham Maslow on Humanistic Approach


Epigenitic principle- human psychological development
depends on the way in which individuals pass through predetermined maturational stages and upon the challenges
that are set by society at particular times in their lives.

Erikson’s theory


Erik Homberger Erikson (1902-1994) was
a German developmental psychologist.

His well known theory is “
Psychosocial development of human beings


Erik Erikson’s theory on psychosocial development of human beings

Humanistic Psychology
Psychological perspective
Focuses on the study of the whole person
Importance of the inner world of the learner
Place the individual’s thought, feeling and emotions at the forefront of all human development
Moskowitz (1978, p. 11, cited in Stevick, 1990) commented that, in the process of language learning, youngsters, particularly, are exploring to find their identity and are in demand of self-acceptance.

In Arnold's (1998) view, the humanistic education places much emphasis on creating a moral climate in the group.

According to Gage and Berliner (1991, cited in Aloni, 2007) the humanistic psychology can be categorized into three main principles namely 'individual self worth', 'feelings are as important as facts', and 'personal, social and moral development becomes at least as important as academic development'

In a nutshell, “humanistic” education is considered a concern for personal growth, self-acceptance, and also acceptance by others .

Origin
Philosophy of humanism was born in the middle ages. In that time the basic philosophy was that every person has worth and the right to achieve self-realization through reason and rational thought.
In the 15th century, the early humanism movement began in Europe as a protect against the closed minded religions dogma of the Church’s scholars and philosophers
Modern humanistic psychology emerges in education by clinical psychologists, social workers and counselors against behaviorism and psychoanalysis.

Maslow's hierarchy is often criticized because people do not have needs one after another in such a simple way. The reality of needs is more complicated
The hierarchy is also called ethnocentric by antrhopologists like Gerard Hendrik Hofstede
Maslow's explanation of self actualization is not complete
Evolution of Humanistic Psychology
Hp rose to prominence in the 20th century.
It’s a response to the limitations of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and B.F.skinner’s behaviorism.
With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity.

Evolution of Humanistic Psychology
HP adopts a holistic approach and pays special attention to creativity, free will, and human potential.
It encourages viewing ourselves as a whole person and also encourages self exploration.
Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of human psyche.

Early development of Humanistic Psychology was heavily influenced by the works of a few keys theorists…..
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers
Rollo May
Erich Erikson

Major thinkers in Humanistic Psychology
1943-Abraham Maslow described his hierarchy of needs in “A theory of Human Motivation” published in psychological review.
1951- Carl Rogers published client-centred Therapy, which described his humanistic client-directed approach therapy.
1961- The American Association for Humanistic Psychology is formed and the journal of Humanistic Psychology was established.

Important events in Humanistic Psychology
1962- American Association for Humanistic Psychology was formed.
1971- Humanistic psychology becomes an APA division.

Important events in Humanistic Psychology
Major ideas and concepts that emerged as a result of the humanist movement include an emphasis on things such as…
Peak experiences
Self-actualization
Psychology needs
Safety needs
Basic needs
Self-concept
Free will

Today, the concept central to Humanistic Psychology can be seen in many disciplines including….
Education
Therapy
Political movements
Other branches of psychology.

Humanistic Psychology Today
Full transcript