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Moral Development: Piaget and Kohlberg

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Ray Singleton

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Moral Development: Piaget and Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg Jean Piaget Moral
Development Psychosocial development - sense of self emerges as a result of interactions between social and personal sides;

Individual development takes place in a social context

Includes: feelings, attitudes, beliefs and values manifested as morality and identity Moral Development:
mechanism by
which children learn
right and wrong Moral Judgment:
children's conceptions
of rules and the respect
they acquire
for these rules Moral Development - talked to
children about stories which
contained an immoral act,
such as a lie, but varied in
their intentionality Moral Judgment - studied
children's games (marbles) Stage 1:
Moral Realism
Age 2-7 Stage 2:
Ages 7-11 Stage 3:
Ages 11-15 Mutuality - equality,
reciprocity, and cooperation Golden Rule Mutual Respect -
taking turns,
following rules More sensitive to
Intentionality Reciprocity between
severity of crime
and the punishment Distributive Justice -
restitution, focus on
treating everyone
equally Autonomy - rules are seen as social conventions Autonomous Morality - rules set by and
changeable through
mutual agreement Young person has become
freed, or autonomous,
from adult imposed
reality Justice - equality
gives way to
equity Equity - accounts
for individual circumstances
and factors Interest in rules
as a code of
conduct, maintain spirit of game Ideas of Unfairness
develop... Mutuality:
Unfair behavior
goes against equality Autonomy:
Unfair acts
violate sense
of equity Moral Realism:
Unfair behavior forbidden by adults or by the rules of the game Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Ideas of Justice
develop... Distributive -
considering equality;
treating everyone the
same; maintaining
harmony Equity -
circumstances are
taken into
account Retributive -
requiring punishment
to stamp out disobedience
or unjust acts Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 2 Expanded Piaget's ideas
into a six-stage theory
of moral reasoning Moral Dilemmas Patterns of responses in
children of different ages? Level 1
Preconventional Morality Stage 1
Punishment - Obedience Stage 2
Personal Reward Authority is outside the individual;
reasoning based on
physical consequences Child is good to avoid punishment;
if someone is punished, they must have done wrong Child is good to be rewarded; limited
sense of reciprocity; a practical morality Level 2
Conventional Morality Stage 3
Good Person Stage 4
Law and Order Authority is internalized
but not questioned; reasoning is based
on group norms Good boy/good girl; seeking approval Child aware of wider societal rules; obey to uphold law and avoid guilt Level 3
Postconventional Morality Stage 5
Social Contract Stage 6
Ethical Principles Individual judgment based on
self-chosen principles;
moral reasoning based on
individual rights and justice Awareness of complications / issues not
clear cut; rules for the common good
sometimes work against
interest of individuals Development of individual moral
guidelines which may or may not
fit the law; defending these
principles may require going
against society and facing
severe consequences Limitations Moral Reasoning is not
the same as Moral Behavior Universality? Generality? Overlapping Stages Other Factors: inconvenience,
personal risk, gender-role
orientation, perspective
taking Occasional tendency to move backward, inconsistency, unpredictability Biased towards: Western cultures? High Social / educational levels?
Gender? Stage 2 Stage 3 Children's views of
Punishment Compare / Contrast Piaget Kohlberg Level 1: Preconventional Morality Stage 1: Punishment / Obedience

Stage 2: Personal Reward Level 2: Conventional Morality Stage 3: Good Person

Stage 4: Law and Order Level 3: Postconventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contract

Stage 6: Universal Ethical Stage 1
Moral Realism Objective Responsibility -
you are responsible for your
transgressions, regardless
of your intent Heteronomous Morality -
rules are sacred and
fixed; handed down
by authority figures Expiatory Punishment -
strong, arbitrary, pays penance;
Retributive Justice - "an eye
for an eye," based on
Adult Restraint Immanent Justice -
automatic punishments (karma); bridge between stages Rules are taken literally and absolutely; they must be respected Severity of a transgression is directly proportional to its superficiality; the bigger the lie, the worse it is development of self;
children;moral reasoning = consequences; males;stages;limitations;final stage may not be reached; importance of rules;
valuable insight ages; focus on social;
observed; rigid; birth-adolescence; self-realization by age 15 more detailed; no age limits; more room to progress; birth-adult; more gradual;based on Piaget; more interaction; more focus on individual;
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