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17 | The Ancient World
Transcript of 17 | The Ancient World
Fig. 17-1 Wall painting with three horses facing one another, Chauvet, Ardeche Gorge, France, 30,000 BCE. Ministere de la Culture et des Communication Thematically: See Art and Spiritual Thinking Belief on myartslab.com
The Earliest Art
Preserved in the depth of approximately fifty caves France and Spain are thousands of wall paintings, most depicing animals - including large and powerful creatures that were rarely, if ever, hunted.
The oldest known of these works, discovered in the deep recess of the Chateu cave in southern France.
Breasts, belly, and genitals are exaggerated and the face lacks defining features, suggesting a connection to fertility and child bearing.
Ice age waned around 8000 BCE
Neolitic-New Stone Age
Fig. 17-3 Basin, Majiayao culture, Majiayao phase, Gansu Province, China, c. 3000-2700 BCE. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province.
Humans began to domesticate animals and cultivate food
Neolithic cultures flourished in China along the bank of Yellow River. 5000 BCE
The flowing, curvilinear forms painted on the shallow basin illustrated here include "hand" motifs on the outside and round, almost eye-like forms that flow into each other on the inner area.
Neolithic: Susa Kingdom, Iranian plateau. 5000-4000 BCE
Fig. 17-4, Beaker with ibex, and long-necked birds, from southwest Iran, c. 5000-4000 BCE.
The Chauvet drawings suggest, does not evolve in a linear progression from awkward beginnings to more sophisticated representations.
Bullfight Scene', Pablo Picasso | Tate
Fig. 17-5 Stonhendge, Salsbury Plain (Wiltshire) England, c. 2000 BCE.
Salisbury Plain, west from London
Between 4000-3000 BCE
Ziggurat=bond between heaven and earth
Visitors often placed a statue in the temple.
Blessings from Shamash,
the Sun God
Fall of Babylon in 1595 BCE
Assyrian: Assurnasirpal (883 BCE)
Fig. 17-2 Woman (once known as the Venus of Willedorf, ) Austria, C. 25,000-20,000 BCE. Limestone, height 4 1/2", Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Magnificent capital at Kahlu on the Tigris River. 5 Miles long wall, 120 feet thick, 42 feet high. 69k people were invited to the celebration of the dedication. Walls were decorated with reliefs.
Assurnasirpal Killing Lions (Fig. 17-8)
Then & Now
Egypt, from 3100 BCE
till defeated by Octavian in 30 BCE.
(Mark Anthony and Cleopatra)
Nile River flooded almost every year, leaving rich deposits of fertile soil.
Egypt culture was dedicated to providing home for ka, that part of human being that defines personality and survives life on earth after death.
Mummification- preservation of the body treatening it with chemical solutions then wrapping it to linen.
The pyramids were the largest of the resting places designed to house the ka.
- coffin where the mummy was taken.
of ideal proportions was developed that was almost universally applied. The figure is, in effect, fitted into a grid.
Palette of King Narmer. Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt, c 3000 BCE.
The tablet celebrates the victory of Upper Egypt, led by King Narmer, over Lower Egypt, in a battle that united the country.
Typical of Egyptian art. Lower body is in profile, his torso and shoulders full front, his head in profile again, though a single eye is portrayed frontally.
King Khafre, Giza, Egypt, c. 2530 BCE. Diorite. Egyptien Museum Cairo
Rigorous geometry governing Egyptian representation. Block of right angles. Ideal image of kingship.
Short period he fourteenth century BCE. Introduced a from of monotheism (worship of single god) into polytheistic Egypt.
Akhenaton and his family worshiping the Sun god, manifested as a radiant sun disc - the Aten.
Indian civilization was born along the Indus river around 2700 BCE, in an area known as Sind - from the word India and Hindo originate.
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro city. Built atop a citadell is a complex of buildings. Government or religious center, surrounded by 50 feet high wall.
Set among the building on the citadel is a giant pool, perhaps public bath or ritual space.
Around a city approximately 6 to 7 square miles. Home of 20-50k population.
Torso of "priest-king," from Mohenjo-daro. c. 200-190 BCE. Museum of Pakistan, Karachi.
Indus valley civilizations collapsed between 1800 to 1000 BCE, perhaps the result of prolonged drought.
Vedic people moved into the Indus Valley, called themselves Aryans.
Spread the Ganges River. Hinduism and Hindu art is their cultural heritage.
In China, the Shang dynasty ruled the yellow River Valley, second millennium.
Spouted ritual wine vessel (Guang), Shang dynasty, early Anyang period, (ca. 1300-ca. 1050 B.C) 13th century BC. Bronze
Extremely sophisticated bronze-casting technology.
-horned bird transformed into a dragon-serpent
Figures symbolizing royal authority and strenth.
Olmec came to Mesoamerica as early as 1500 BCE. Today Mexico.
Complex Societies in the Americas
The Olmec built huge ceremonial precincts in the middle of their communities.
Pyramids - mounds, where elite group lived.
Pyramids may have been architectural reference to the volcanoes that dominate Mexico.
La Venta, colossal stone heads stood guard over the ceremonial center.
Colossal head, Olmec culture, c. 900-500 BCE. Basalt, height 7ft. 5in. Mexico
La Venta, close to present day city of Villahermosa.
4 colossal heads, 11 and 24 tons each head.
Other Olmec site: San Lorenzo. 8 heads. Basalt. Nearest basalt quarry is 50 miles to the south.
The faces are portraying Olmec rulers.
Stele of Hammurabi, c 1760 BCE. Basalt. 7ft.
18th century BCE.
Artists seemed more intent on details and characters, special features. Naturalistic piece of work.
Queen Nefretiti, Akhenaten's queen. Tell al Amarna, c. 1365 BCE. Painted limestone. Berlin
Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC
The Colossi of Memnon
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings.
Minoan civilization. Arrived to the island around 6000BCE. Peak of culture 1600 and 1400 BCE.
The "Toreador" fresco, Knossos 24 1/1 inch
King Minos wife give birth to a creature half-human and half bull - Minotaur.
Athenian youth and maidens were sacrificed for him unless it was killed by the hero Theseus.
Mycenaeans 1400 and 1200 BCE
The Myceneaens built stone fortresses on the hilltops of the Peloponnesus
The Warrior Vase, Mucenae, c. 1200 BCE
Marching to war, perhaps to meet the Dorian invaders who destroyed their civilization soon after 1200BCE.
The Dorian weapons were made of iron and therefore were superior to the softer bronze Mycenaean spears.
They buried their dead in so-called beehive tombs, which, dome-shaped, were full of gold and silver, including masks of the royal dead, a burial practice similar to that of the Egyptians.
Mask of beaten gold accompanied the dead Mycenaean king to his grave.
Gods are immortal, they were otherwise ourselves. Looked and act like people.
Around 500BCE in Athens, all free male citizens were included in the political system. Demos=people, kratia=power
The Acropolis, Athens, 5th century.
Temple was situated on an elevated site above the city, and the acropolis, from akros, meaning "top", and polis, "city", was conceived as the center of the life.
The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
At its center was an enormous ivory and gold statue of Athena, sculpted by Phidias, who was in charge of all the ornamentation and sculpture for the project.
The Phidian style is marked by its naturalness. The human figure often assume a relaxed, seemingly effortless pose, or it may be caught in the act of movement, athletic or casual.
Nike, from the Balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, c. 410-407 BCE, Marble, 42inch
404 BCE Peloponnesian war, Athen lost his power, in 338 BCE the Army of Philip, King of Macedon, conquered Greece, and after Philip's death two years later his son, Alexander the Great, came to power.
Alexander was educated by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Hellenism, or the culture of Greece, thus came to dominate the Western world.
The court sculptor to Alexander the Great was Lysippus, known to us only though the Roman copies of his work. Creating sculptures with smaller heads and slenderer bodies that lent his figures a sense of greater height.
Apoxyomenos (The Sraper), romen sopy of an original Greek bronze by Lysipp, c. 350-325 BCE.
Contraposto and three-dimensional realism.
Sculptures are more about the pleasure of seeing than anything else. Artists strove for an ever-greater degree of realism.
Nike of Samothrace is a masterpiece of Hellenism. c. 190 BCE. Marble, 8feet
The Laocoon Group, Roman copy, perhaps after Agessander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus of Rhodes, firsst century CE. Marble, 7feet
Laocoon a Trojan priest and his two sons are overwhelmed by serpents sent by the sea-god Poseidon.
Sculptor is no longer content simply to represent the figure realistically; sculpture must convey emotions as well.
Romans conquered Greece in 146 BCE, like Philips the Macedon and Alexander, they regarded Greek culture and art as superior to any other.
The Greek gods were adapted to the Roman religion.
Around 768 BC–264 BC Etruscans estabilished a vital set of city-states in the area between present day-Florence and Rome.
At Veii, just north of Rome, the Etruscans estabilished a sculptural center that gave them a reputation as the finest metalworkers of the age.
The city of Rome itself was founded early in Etruscan times - in 753 BCE, the Romans believed - by Romolus and Remus, twins nutrured by a she-wolf.
She-Wolf, c. 500 BCE. Bronze
The she-wolf reminded the Romans of the fiercely protective loyalty and power of their motherland.
A great ruler was fully capable of idealizing himself as a near-deity, as is evident in the Augustus of imaporta.
A well-preserved Roman period copy of the Doryphoros of Polykleitos in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. Material: marble. Height: 2.12 metres (6 feet 11 inches).
The Arch of Titus is a 1st-century honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum.
Monument upon the death of Titus who defeated rebellious Jews in Palestine and sacked the Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE.
Originally was topped by a statue of four-horse chariot and driver.
Triumphal arch-triumphant armies marched through them.
Simple barell vault enclosed within a rectangle, and enlivened with sculpture and decorative engaged columns, would influence later architecture of the Renessaince, especially the facades of Renessaince cathedrals.
Column of Trajan. Rome, 113 CE.
50 inch high and 625 feet long spiraling band of relief.
Two successful campaign to Pannonia and Dacia.
150 seperate episodes celebrate not only military victories, but Rome's civilizing mission as well.
The Pantheon is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
The Roman Forum is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
As the empire solified its strengths under the Pax Romana - 150 years of peace initiated by the Emperor Augustus in 27 BCE.
After death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE. empire bagan to fall. Invasion of German tribes from the north, Berbers from the south, and Persians from the east meant danger for the empire.
Costantine moved the capital to Byzantium in 323 CE -Constantinople, day's Istanbul.
Development in Asia
At about the same time that Rome began estabilishing its imperial authority over the Mediterranean world, one of several warring states in China, the Qin (the origin of our name for China(, conquered the other states nd unified them under the leadership of Quin Shihuangdi, "First Emperor" in 221 BCE.
The Great Wall, near Beijing, begun late 3rd BCE.
The wall was constructed by bysoldiers, augmented by criminals, civil servants who found themselves in disfavor, and conscripts from acreoss the countryside.
Tomb of the emperor Quin Shihuangdi,
Qin collapsed and the Han dynasty came to power, inaugrating over 400 years of intellectual and cultural growth.
Model of a Multi-Storied Tower, 1st century
Silk road. Export of silk to Rome.
Lady of Dai with Attendant,
Han dynasty after 168 BCE.
Han's Conception of Cosmos
The Awakened One born as Siddhatha Gautma around 490 BCE.
Achieved nirvana, the release from worldly desires that ends the cycle of death and reincarnation and begins a state of permanent bliss in about 410 BCE.
Buddhism institutionailzed by Asoka (273-232)
Erected 84,000 shrines, called stupas, throughout India.
Stupa is a burial mound from prehistoric times.
The Great Stupa, Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh, India, view of the West Gateway, founded 3rd century BCE, enlarged c. 150-50 BCE.
Pilgrims circel the stupa, retracting the path of the sun, thus putting themselves in harmony with the cosmos and sumbolically walking the Buddhist path of Life around the World Mountain.
Review of the first Lesson:
1. What artists did we talk about?
2. Can you remember a specific artwork?
3. If yes write about it in 3 sentences.
4. What are the two major art walks in South Florida?
5. Which artist is featured at the Fort Lauderdale Art Museum presently?
6. What color shirt did I wear the last time?
7. What is the name of the glass sculptor who exhibited at Fairchild Botanic Garden in Miami?
8. Is it creepy to put a 3D printed life size human sculpture in your home?
c. 30,000 BCE
Venus of Willendorf
"Venus" of Willendorf, found in 1908 by the archaeologist Josef Szombathy.
The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563)
The Tower of Babel, is a story told in the Book of Genesis of the Tanakh (also referred to as the Hebrew Bible) meant to explain the origin of different languages.
Hammurabi , "the kinsman is a healer; died c. 1750 BC) was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon (that is, of the First Babylonian Dynasty, the Amorite Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728 BC – 1686 BC short chronology). He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father, Sin-Muballit, who had become very ill and died, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.
Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer (relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws).
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC.
Ashur-nasir-pal II, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir") was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.
Palace of Kalhu
Ashurnasirpal II's palace was built and completed in 879 BC in Kalhu, which is in modern-day Iraq slightly north of Baghdad.
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity and later, Islamic culture.
The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone, containing great quantities of fossilized seashells. Many of the facing stones have fallen or have been removed and used for construction in Cairo.
The building of pyramids began in the Third Dynasty with the reign of King Djoser.
Djoser was buried in his famous step pyramid at Saqqara. This pyramid was originally built as a nearly quadratic mastaba, but then five further mastabas were literally piled upon the first, each new mastaba smaller than the predecessing ones, until the monument became Egypt's first step pyramid. Supervisor of the building constructions
Canopic jars discovered inside a temple of Pharaoh Amenhotep II, in Luxor, Egypt.
A sarcophagus is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The word papyrus refers to a thin paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus.
Valley of the Kings
Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods.
Akhenaten depicted as a sphinx at Amarna.
Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian solar deity. By the Fifth Dynasty (2494 to 2345 BCE) he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the midday sun.
Isis ; Ancient Greek: IPA: original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset" is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. She was first worshiped in Ancient Egyptian religion, and later her worship spread throughout the Roman empire and the greater Greco-Roman world.
Isis depicted with outstretched wings (wall painting, c. 1360 BCE)
Terracotta figure of Isis-Aphrodite from Ptolemaic Egypt
Roman Isis holding a sistrum and oinochoe and wearing a garment tied with a characteristic knot, from the time of Hadrian (117–138 CE)
Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times.
Anubis is the Greek name of a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion.
Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history.
She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Neues Museum, shown to the right. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Louvre Museum, Paris.
The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna. It was marked by the reign of Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten (1353–1336 BC) in order to reflect the dramatic change of Egypt's polytheistic religion into one where a sun-god Aten was worshipped over all other gods.
During Akhenaten's reign, royal portraiture underwent dramatic change. Sculptures of Akhenaten deviate from conventional portrayal of royalty. Akhenaten is depicted in an androgynous and highly stylized manner, with large thighs, a slim torso, drooping belly, full lips, and a long neck and nose.
A relief of a royal couple in the Amarna-period style; figures may be Akhenaten and Nefertiti
The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as el-Colossat, or es-Salamat) are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years (since 1350 BC) they have stood in the Theban necropolis, west of the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor.
Side panel detail showing two flanked relief images of the deity Hapi and, to the right, a sculpture of the royal wife Tiy
All portray mature men with fleshy cheeks, flat noses, and slightly crossed eyes; their physical characteristics correspond to a type that is still common among the inhabitants of Tabasco and Veracruz.
Possible reconstruction of the act of bull leaping
As in Egyptian art women are depicted with light skin, men with darker complexion.
In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares.
A cyclops, in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, was a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the middle of his forehead. The name literally means "round-eyed" or "circle-eyed".
The Mask of Agamemnon
Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus king of Sparta.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
Culture of Greece
Athen & Sparta
The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC.
First Olympic Games 776 BC.
Goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, and pleasure.
God of music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague, prophecy, poetry, manly beauty, archery, and the sun.
Goddess of intelligence, skill, peace, warfare, battle strategy, handicrafts, and wisdom.
King and father of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and justice.
Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC)
Pheidias; c. 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece: Phidias' Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Statue of Zeus
The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior walls of the cella, which is the inside structure of the Parthenon. The bas-relief frieze was carved in situ; it is dated to 442 BC-438 BC.
The Parthenon frieze is the high-relief pentelic marble sculpture created to adorn the upper part of the Parthenon’s naos.
Temple of Athena Nike
The Temple of Athena Nike is a temple on the Acropolis of Athens. Built around 420BC, the temple is the earliest fully Ionic temple on the Acropolis.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
The Venus de Milo is one of the most famous products of Hellenistic art.
Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, Africa and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science.
was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece
At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC)
His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government
Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BC.
"Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history ... [and] every scientist is in his debt."
Plato was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, in Classical Greece. He is considered an essential figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition, and he founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Lysippos was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC. Together with Scopas and Praxiteles, he is considered one of the three greatest sculptors of the Classical Greek era, bringing transition into the Hellenistic period.
It was created to not only honor the goddess, Nike, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery, as though the goddess was descending to alight upon the prow of a ship.
artist: Pythokritos of Lindos
Laocoön and His Sons
One of the most famous ancient sculptures ever since it was excavated in Rome in 1506 and placed on public display in the Vatican, where it remains.
One of the finest examples of the Hellenistic baroque
Head of the older son, Antiphantes
One of the finest examples of the Hellenistic baroque
Etruscan funerary art
Painted terracotta sarcophagus of Seainti Hanunia Tlesnasa, about 150-130 BCE
The Etruscans excelled in portraying humans. Throughout their history they used two sets of burial practices: cremation and inhumation.
Etruscan Canopic Urn from Chiusi
The age and origin of the Capitoline Wolf is a subject of controversy. The statue was long thought to be an Etruscan work of the 5th century BC, with the twins added in the late 15th century AD, probably by the sculptor Antonio Pollaiolo. However, radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating has found that the wolf portion of the statue was likely cast between 1021 and 1153.
Roman remains in Aquincum
Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - Hungary
Alcántara Bridge, Spain
Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain.
Monty Python (sometimes known as The Pythons) were a British surreal comedy group who created the sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus, that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969.
Roman theatre of Aspendos, Turkey
Some of the most impressive secular buildings are the amphitheatres
They were used for gladiatorial contests, public displays, public meetings and bullfights, the tradition of which still survives in Spain.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
The Roman Forum
A forum was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
What have the Romans ever done for us
Sir Ridley Scott
English film director and producer
Alien is a 1979 science-fiction horror film directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Tom Skerritt, Sigourney Weaver, Veronica Cartwright, Harry Dean Stanton, John Hurt, Ian Holm and Yaphet Kotto.
H. R. Giger
coffered concrete dome