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Marco Victorio

on 7 March 2014

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By: Marco Victorio

Why did I choose the topic?
Bryan Walsh of TIME said, "We tend to focus on the size of an earthquake, but death toll has more to do with the quality of buildings."
"Poverty - and even more, poor governance and corruption - is the multiplier of natural disasters. That is why one of the most vulnerable places in the world is south-central Asia."

I see that there is a lack of attention on the quality of buildings. People tend to focus more on the scale of the earthquake than what killed them. It is the building that matters.
Let me ask you a question. How could the Bay Area in the US that suffered a 6.9 scale earthquake and lose only 63 people while in Haiti, with a slightly stronger quake lost 100,000 people?
Earthquake, a very common natural disaster that could easily take innocent peoples' lives.
Earthquakes have raged on our country as well in the past. A famous example is the deadly earthquake near Aceh in 2004. 9.1 killed around 230,000 people. Haiti earthquake that killed about 100,000 people.
I am going to analyze 7 different buildings, each having a mark in history. I am going to see how they are earthquake resistant and the system they use to suppress the quake. And I am going to narrow it to 3.
Transamerica Pyramid (San Francisco, USA)
Burj Khalifa (Dubai, UAE)
US Bank Tower (Los Angeles, USA)
Yokohama Landmark Tower (Yokohama, Japan)
Taipei 101 (Taipei, Taiwan)
Tokyo Sky Tree (Tokyo, Japan)
Torre Mayor (Mexico City, Mexico)
Research Question:
How can a building be earthquake resistant?
Reports claim that the tower can withstand an earthquake between a scale of 5.5 to 7.0. But until now it hasn't receive an earthquake that big. However, it survive.d some shaking from a nearby Iran earthquake
It is the tallest building in the state of California. It is 1018 feet high. The building was constructed to withstand an 8.3 magnitude earthquake.
This 972 foot tall building is built to be earthquake proof. The building sits on rollers which allow the earth to shake below it without shaking it. The building also has an active mass damper system that prevents the building fromg swinging. For the last resort, it is made of flexible materials that bend instead of break during an earthquake.
The building has a 730 ton steel ball which hangs inside the building acting like a giant pendulum to prevent sway. The ball is attached to steel cables that has its own shock absorbers

San Francisco's tallest skyscraper sits on top of a 52 foot deep steel and concrete foundation designed to move during an earthquake. A system of triangular trusses support the building's base. The building survived a 7.1 magnitude quake that shook the nearby. Santa Cruz Mountains in 1989.

Mexico City's 57 story skyscraper survived a nearby 8.1 quake that killed more than 10,000 citizens in 1985. It has 21,200 tons of steel and concrete with steel columns stretching up to the 30th floor. It also has 98 seismic dampers that are shock absorbers in the steel bracing.

The aesthetically built building has a center column vibration control, with the core column and surrounding steel frame connected by a flexible oil damper. So the building shakes in different directions suppressing the shaking.
I want my findings to provide the society a new persepective on architecture; that it is very essential for a building to be properly built to survive an earthquake.
My main source is the internet. To ensure the credibility, i am going to use more than 4 sources. I am also researching from a minimum of 3 books such as the World Book Encyclopedia.

Also I will interview an architect as well.
I am going to construct my own method of making a building earthquake proof that is suitable for Indonesia based on the information I collected.
Control: architecture
Independent: The buildings I will analyze
Dependent: The system that I will make
Burj Khalifa
Built by the Samsung Corporation from 2004-2009.

The Burj Khalifa has 39 floors for hotel, 64 floors apartment and 37 floor offices.

It's design is based on an Islamic architectural style which is inspired from the six spokes of the Hymenocallis desert flower. It represents Dubai's bright future.

There are 192 reinforcing rods

The rods are then layered with 3.7 meters of thick base frame

high strength concrete to maintain the stability and safety of the 160 floor building.

'Y' shaped base. It is both aesthetic and functionally useful. It reduces the wind force on the building and keeps the structure simple for better construction.

The base has a hexagonal hub as the core. It provides torsional resistance of the structure.

There are 4 evacuation chambers, one in every 30 floors in case of fire or terrorism.

High-tech elevators take only 1 minute to go from the first to the 124th floor.

These elevators can operate safely even when the building is on fire.
Building Monitoring
There are 700 sensors in the building frames for live monitoring.

These sensors will monitor the
building's activity from top to bottom in detail during the construction.

Day one:
Assembled double reinforcements are moved safely to the top.

Day two: Wooden frames are installed to cover and strengthen the
double reinforcements.

Day three:
High strength concrete is pumped from the ground by
using advanced technology, the Auto Climbing Formwork System.
After the concrete is dry, the wooden frames are then removed.

Construction Equipment
-3 high speed power cranes are used to carry heavy equipments
-4 placing booms are used to pump high strength concrete efficiently
-14 high speed lifts to carry employees and small equipment
-3 high pressure concrete pumps (570m world record)
The Taipei 101 is a real example of how man try to outwit nature.

To do that, it must be able to counter the damages posed by two main natural activities; earthquake and strong wind.

The Taipei 101 stands directly on top of two tectonic fault lines with winds blowing up to 201 km per hour.
The construction begins from the base
It is a challenge to find solid ground on Taipei.

700 000 tons of earth were removed and 382 concrete piles were planted 80m into the ground. It is to make sure that the building is not merely standing on earth, it is fused to it.
The Taipei 101 uses 5 different kinds of specially mixed combinations of steel.

carbon, alloy and refined iron.

It must be both flexible and rigid to counter the earthquake and strong wind.

Special concrete is used which is 60 percent stronger than normal concrete.

It could withstand 10,000 pounds per square inch. The combination of steel and concrete makes this building’s backbone the most flexible and the strongest of any building ever made, so they claim.

Tuned Mass Damper
A steel ball which will sway to the opposite direction of where the building will sway, canceling the force from the wind.
It is a giant sphere weighting 660 tons. It is attached to 16 10cm thick cables and attached to a series of hydraulic pumps as shock absorbers. The hydraulic pumps also make sure that the ball sways opposite from the sway of the building so that it won’t crash.

The Transamerica Pyramid reaches 853 feet (260 meters) into the sky. It has been a landmark of San Francisco since 1972. It is both aesthetically pleasing and impressive in terms of it’s engineering and design.
The Transamerica Pyramid utilizes a unique truss system which uses X-bracing used above the first floor.
The truss system reinforces the base to support weight horizontally and vertically. It is also resistant to torsional forces caused by seismic events such as an earthquake.

two interior frames which extend up to the 45th floor.
The Pyramid has endured an earthquake in 1989. A 7.1 magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake which the Santa Cruz Mountains. During that event, the top part of the Pyramid swayed more than 30 centimeters side to side but did not crumble.
Standing above 630 m high, the Tokyo Sky tree was designed by a Japanese architecture firm, Nikken Sekkei.
Center of Mass
The Tokyo Sky Tree's emergency staircase which is
in the core of the tower acts as the center.

The core column and the surrounding steel frame are constructed separately. They will shake in different directions during an earthquake.
Along the corners, oil dampers were installed to act as cushions which they claim to reduce
sway by up to 50%. In the middle, there is a space of about 1m. From the height of 125 to 375m, they put 6 oil dampers. This is to control sway so that the core column won't hit the inner part of the tower.

Central Column and TMD
X-Truss Base
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