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Biomechanics in hockey:

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by

Emma Riley

on 4 May 2015

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Transcript of Biomechanics in hockey:

Skill one: Hitting
1.
Torque:
Bones rotate around joint axis in order to move the body parts (knee, hip, elbow)
2.
Friction:
force causes deceleration of the ball
3.
Angle of attack:
point at which the stick connects with the ball determines where it goes
4.
Newton's 1st law:
the ball stays at rest until it connects with the stick
5.
Newton's 2nd law:
the force applied from the stick causes the ball to accelerate in the same direction
6.
Impact:
the collision between the ball and the stick determines the motion of the ball after impact
7.
Centre of gravity:
controlling the position of centre of gravity allows the athlete to stay balanced and use their body weight to gain momentum
8.
Base of support:
controlling the space that is supported by the surface allows the athlete to stay balanced and stable
9.
Balance and stability:
Using a stance that is stable and easy for the athlete to maintain their state of equilibrium in order to not fall over.
10.
Conservation of momentum:
the momentum of the stick translates into the momentum of the ball as the total momentum of the system before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision.


Coaching check points: hitting
Improvements:
Biomechanics in hockey:
Biomechanical Principles: hitting
Skill two: Short corner push outs
Biomechanical principles: pushing
1. Acceleration:
the ball has a change in velocity from zero to the speed at which it is pushed, this is an acceleration.
2. Newton's 1st law:
the ball stays at rest until the force of the push has acted upon it.
3. Drag:
the friction of the ground causes the ball to drag and therefore decelerate
4. Newton's 2nd law:
the force applied to the ball causes a change in velocity in the direction of the applied force, directly proportional to the size of the force
5. Momentum:
by moving the body weight from the back foot to the front foot, momentum is gathered and used to create a greater acceleration
6. Line of gravity:
by having the line of gravity within the range of the base of support, a stable stance is obtained, and moving that line of gravity with the body parts adds to momentum

7. Stability:
by enlarging the base of support with the feet and having the line of gravity within this, stability is able to be reached so the athlete does not fall over.
8. Torque:
the bones rotate around the axes (joints) in order to move the body parts to perform the skill.
9. Base of support:
the size of the area that is supported by a surface determines the stability of the stance of an athlete. Enlarging it and ensuring the line of support is within its boundaries will make the pusher stable.
10. Centre of gravity:
the centre of gravity of the ball is located right in the centre to ensure it goes straight in the path of the force applied.
Errors in the novice's skill:
- grip was apart, shortening the lever of the stick so the hit was less powerful
- line of gravity was not over the ball, causing the stick to hit the ground before the ball
- arms were bent after swing and body position did not follow through, discontinuing the momentum of the system
- stick was angled incorrectly, if it made connection with the ball the angle of attack would not have been correct, causing the ball to shoot off in random directions
- does not step into the hit, lessens the momentum of the system

- shorten the grip and move to the top of the stick, the lever will be lengthened so the hit is more powerful
- ensure the head is over the ball so the line of gravity is over the ball to allow a good stick to ball connection
- straighten arms after hit and follow through with the body to ensure the momentum is continued
- angle the stick correctly so it will connect with the middle back of the ball, ensuring the angle of attack is effective
- step into the hit to gather momentum
- line the ball up with the left foot to result in a correct angle of attack
- make sure to keep body position smooth throughout the hit, avoid dipping down in the hit
- separate legs with one foot in front of the other in the step into the hit, this will ensure a balanced and stable stance is gathered throughout the hit
- avoid tensing the entire arm through out the swing, the hit should come through the wrists to lessen the difficulty
- point the front foot in the direction in which the ball should be going to help with accuracy, and the back foot perpendicular to the front for stability of the body


Errors:
Errors in the novice's skill:
- grip was together, decreasing the amount of control the athlete has over the direction of the ball
- grip was far down the stick, shortening the lever and therefore the power of the ball
- body did not follow through in the direction of the push, discontinuing the momentum
- stick followed through around the novice's body, making the ball travel to the left of the trapper
- feet were close together which made the time the ball was dragged before it was released shorter, so less power was gathered




Errors:
Improvements:
- ensure grip is slightly apart so that athlete can have good control, but not so far that power is lessened
- move grip to the top of the stick to increase the lever and generate more power
- follow body through in direction of the push to continue momentum and be ready for a possible deflection
- follow stick through in direction of the push to increase accuracy
- widen the distance between feet so that the ball can drag for longer before it is released, this will generate more power
- make sure torso and body is faced in the direction of the push afterward as opposed to twisting around, this will make a more accurate push
- make sure the stick and ball follow a straight line while being dragged rather than hooking around as this will make an inaccurate push

Coaching Checkpoints: pushing
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