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Sex, Gender, Sexuality

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eury sociology

on 29 November 2016

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Transcript of Sex, Gender, Sexuality

Sex, Gender, Sexuality
Sex
physical and anatomical characteristics considered to distinguish male and female bodies from each other
Gender
differences in the way that men and women in a particular society are expected to feel, think and behave OR socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities for each sex .
Sexuality
sexual behavior; activities that aims to satisfy sexual desires

chromosomes
reproductive organs
hormones

physical appearance
little riley asking why all toys for girls are pink?
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/photos/?c=y&c=y&articleID=119483704&articleID=119483704
when did girls start wearing pink?
sexuality also denotes aspects of identity, lifestyle and community associated with these activities
challenges
Biological Determinism: Sex determines Gender
Women are emotional creatures; Males
must be muscular and strong
2. gender is a social construct: many differences between women and men were socially produced.
physiological features which are thought to be sex-specific and not affected by social and cultural factors are, after all, to some extent products of social conditioning.
Uniformity in muscular shape, size and strength within sex categories is not caused entirely by biological factors, but depends heavily on exercise opportunities: if males and females were allowed the same exercise opportunities and equal encouragement to exercise, it is thought that bodily dimorphism would diminish (Fausto-Sterling 1993a, 218). A number of medical phenomena involving bones (like osteoporosis) have social causes directly related to expectations about gender, women's diet and their exercise opportunities (Fausto-Sterling 2005).
Two-sex model?

Challenge 1
: From Ancient Greeks until the late 18th century female and male sexes were not considered to be distinct categories with specific traits; instead, a ‘one-sex model’ held that males and females were members of the same sex category. Females' genitals were thought to be the same as males' but simply directed inside the body; ovaries and testes (for instance) were referred to by the same term and whether the term referred to the former or the latter was made clear by the context (Laqueur 1990, 4). It was not until the late 1700s that scientists began to think of female and male anatomies as radically different moving away from the ‘one-sex model’ of a single sex spectrum to the (nowadays prevalent) ‘two-sex model’ of sexual dimorphism.
ONE-SEX ARGUMENT
Challenge 2
: Fausto Sterling claimed that intersexed individuals make up (at least) three further sex classes:

‘herms’ who possess one testis and one ovary;

‘merms’ who possess testes, some aspects of female genitalia but no ovaries;

ferms’ who have ovaries, some aspects of male genitalia but no testes (Fausto-Sterling 1993b)

Recognition of intersexes suggests that the idea to think that humans are either female or male can be wrong.
MULTIPLE SEXES
http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2009/sep/11/caster-semenya-runner-intersex
Caster Semenya has one of the 46 types of 'intersex' conditions
Is sex really that much physical?
Judith Butler:
repeated performances of actions according to scripts (presenting male and female how to perform) makes bodies male or female.
ex. dominant conceptions of masculinity provide a male script emphasizing physical toughness, which men are expected to play. This leads men develop muscles and exert physical aggression.
http://bigthink.com/videos/your-behavior-creates-your-gender
For a transcript of this video see:
How do we learn to be men and women?
GENDER SOCIALIZATION:
Gender roles are learned through socialization.
different treatment of babies: http://scientopia.org/blogs/scicurious/2011/03/09/baby-boy-baby-girl-baby-x/
pink dressed babies were
treated kindly and called as pretty and sweet
blue dressed babies were treated less gently and called
as strong and tough.
children know their gender identity and
gender stereotypes
by the age of 3 or 4.
gender roles are taught via punishment or reward
Nancy Chodorow (1978; 1995) has criticised social learning theory as too simplistic to explain gender differences. Instead, she holds that gender is a matter of having feminine and masculine personalities that develop in early infancy as responses to prevalent parenting practices.
the mother-daughter relationship differs from the mother-son relationship because mothers are more likely to identify with their daughters than their sons. This unconsciously prompts the mother to encourage her son to psychologically individuate himself from her thereby prompting him to develop well defined and rigid ego boundaries. However, the mother unconsciously discourages the daughter from individuating herself thereby prompting the daughter to develop flexible and blurry ego boundaries. Childhood gender socialisation further builds on and reinforces these unconsciously developed ego boundaries finally producing feminine and masculine persons
formation of gender during primary socialization
Is socialization that determinant?
1. social change
2. individual choice
Is sexuality a drive?
Is it an identity that can be chosen?
Kenneth Plummer:
An acquisition of sexual identity can be a result of social learning process
sexual socialization involves learning to define oneself as a social being and then managing this definition and its consequences for other aspects of life.
Adolescence
Learning of sexuality
marginalization, confusion
establishing sexual identity
ex. homosexuality------sexual identity
SEXUALITIES?
categories of heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual derives from two-sex model.
QUEER THEORY
challenges the idea of heterosexuality, homosexuality and bisexuality
sexuality as an ACTIVITY does not define IDENTITY

There is no constant identity?
http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/pazar/19899814.asp
Lana Wachowski (former Larry Wachowski) made a speech about her sex change. Why do you think she felt the need to change her life drastically?
Learning Objectives
1. Understand the difference between concepts of sex, gender and sexuality
2. Discuss the relevancy of the argument of "sex determines gender"
2.1. Understand the challenges directed at the concept of "sex"
2.2. Understand the formation of gender-idea of gender socialization
2.3. Understand Butler's argument of "gender determines sex"
3. Discuss the relation between sexuality and identity
4. Understand the challenge brought by Queer theory
5. Understand the challenge brought by feminism
6. Discuss the theory of 'gender order"
She argues that mothering, fulfills a woman's psychological need for reciprocal intimacy. Chodorow also describes the difference in the mother's relationships with their sons as apposed to their daughters. She states that mothers are close with their infant sons, but they view their male children as different and do not share with them the same sense of "oneness" that they experience with their daughters. She claims that mature males that are unaccustomed to a psychologically intimate relationship are, therefore, content to leave mothering to women (Haber,2002).


Chodorow's thinks that object-relations theory is a gender identity formation and is largely a result of the dynamics of family relationships. She has different views on the oedipal stage of childhood. She argues that a girl's pre-oedipal bond with her mother can continue after she develops a fascination with her father. Chodorow also believe that in the preoedipal stage, the infant experiences a primary identification with the mother and forms a primary love for the mother that makes no differentiation between the child's needs and the ability of the mother to fulfill them. Gradually the child establishes a sense of self through an expanded awareness of its own physical self. The child begins to differentiate from the mother as it becomes less dependent upon her.
Functionalist Approaches on Gender ( differences& inequality)
gender differences contribute to social stability and integration
division of labor between men and women is biological/natural in origin
>Ex. George Murdock-->sexual division of labor is a universal phenomenon (present in many parts of the world)

>Parsons-->families are key for socialization

>Browlby--> mother is crucial for the child-->in case of maternal deprivation socialization is at risk.
Feminist Theories on Gender (differences & inequality)
socialization theories give and account of gender differences yet inequalities between sexes cannot be explained.
Patriarchy
is a concept that is used to denote structural form of gender inequality. --male domination & subordination of women

Patre+arche:
rule of father
Liberal Feminism
Understands gender inequality in terms of laws and culture but
not
in terms of
structure
. Ex. Sexism is causing women's suffering from unequal conditions. Or it is because some men are not civil enough they beat their wives.

Strives for legal equality (such as voting rights, equal pay for equal work) and for cultural reforms. (ex. Let's rehabilitate men who beat their wives)
How about media or mentality that promotes violence in general and VAW in particular?
Socialist and Marxist Feminism
criticizes liberal feminism for not seeing the relationship between gender inequality and capitalism.
Women's "domestic labor" (doing dishes, cleaning, cooking etc.) is essential to capitalist economy. GÖRÜNMEZ EMEK
1. because it is free-you don't need to offer care services if women take care of children and elderly.
2. because women bring up next generation of workers and be the carriers of capitalist mentality.
3. because you can designate them as the major consumers or production.
Engels: patriarchy has its roots in private property.

capitalism intensifies patriarchy as it intensifies power of capital owners by concentrating wealth and power in the hands of a few.

capitalism exploits men by paying low wages and women by paying no wages.
patriarchy and capitalism are linked and with the abolishment of capitalism we can get rid of patriarchy
even if women participate in work life they get paid less.
Radical Feminism:
Challenges (both liberal and) Marxist feminism with the argument that patriarchy is a system of oppression different from capitalism. There are sex classes: men exploit women economically, politically and sexually
Family is one of the primary sites of women's oppression. Fathers, brothers and husbands exert control over women.
Patriarchy precedes capitalism; so a socialist revolution may not eliminate patriarchy.
patriarchy involves the appropriation of women's body and sexuality
violence against women is one of the indicators and instruments of patriarchy-rape, sexual harassment, killing are part of systematic oppression and subordination of women
objectification of women as sexual objects is also part of patriarchy
Sylvia Walby:
There are multiple patriarchal structures that reproduce male domination and
there are 2 main forms of patriarchy
1. household production
2. employment relations
3. the patriarchal state
4. male violence
5. sexual relations
6. cultural institutions
patriarchal structures
forms of patriarchy:
1. private patriarchy: women are exploited within domestic sphere (--19th century)
2. public patriarchy: private continues but women face inequality in public sphere as well (20th century)
Black feminism
criticizes feminism for treating the category of women as homogenous and ignoring the functioning of racism on women's subordination for instance.
A black woman's experience of feminism differs from a white New Yorkian woman.
family for Black people is a site for solidarity against racism (within society)
R. Connell's "Gender Order"
description & analysis of male domination with a focus on masculinity and what is happening to men.
rather than focusing on institutions Connell proposes to study "practices"-people can resist
gender order:

hierarchy of masculinities and feminities
hegemonic masculinity:
emphasized femininity
subordinated masculinities



homosexual masculinity
as well
not at the same level with hegemonic masculinity)
resistant femininity
'Hegemonic' refers to the concept of hegemony
- the social dominance of a certain group,
exercised not through brute force, but through a
cultural dynamic which extends into private life and social realms.
antonio gramsci
complicit masculinity
three approaches on sex & gender:

1. sex determines gender
3. Both gender and sex are socially constructed
tendency to look for an essential cause of women's suppression (male violence, women's reproductive capabilities) may be faulty. patriarchy is more complex and its relation to capitalism might differ as well.
postmodern feminism
challenges the idea of a feminist subject? who is the woman we are claiming to defend? is there a unified womanhood?
-rejection of essential categories
-otherness/difference is embraced
-deconstruction as an intervention-challenge the male discourse, masculinities
emphasis on class/gender/race
Gender role
attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for
each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
Gender identity
is a person’s perception of the self as female or male.
Body consciousness
is how a person
perceives and feels about his or her body; it also includes
an awareness of social conditions in society that
contribute to this self-knowledge
Sexism
is the subordination of one sex, usually female,
based on the assumed superiority of the other
sex. Sexism directed at women has three components:
(1) negative attitudes toward women; (2) stereotypical
beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the
prejudice; and (3) discrimination— acts that exclude,
distance, or keep women separate (Lott, 1994).
3. both sex and gender are social constructs (Butler)
2. gender is a social construct:
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