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The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Timeline

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Meera Sayal

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Timeline

Introduction
The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (two cities in Japan) have impacted our world today. Because of these bombings, the United States changed the face of warfare. These were the only times nuclear weapons have been used in war.
December 8, 1941-Roosevelt signs declaration of war:
The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Timeline
By: Meera Sayal


President Roosevelt declares war on Japan. He does this after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
December 7, 1941 - Peal Harbor Bombing
This was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese. Pearl Harbor is on the south side of the Hawaiian island of Oahu and is home to a U.S. naval base. The attack lasted 110 minutes, from 7:55a.m. until 9:45a.m. A total of 2,335 U.S. servicemen were killed and 1,143 were wounded. 68 civilians were also killed and 35 were wounded. The Japanese lost 65 men, with an additional soldier being captured. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II.
July 16, 1945-The United States successfully test the bomb:
The United States successfully sets off the world’s first atomic bomb at the Trinity test site in Alamorgo, a desert of New Mexico. This prototype bomb was dropped from 30m high. The heat melted the metal tower it was dropped from and the surrounding sand. This successfully showed the nuclear weapon’s strength, therefore it was ready for use.
Timeline of Events
December 1, 1941

December 8, 1941

December 1942

May 7, 1945

July 16, 1945

August 6, 1945

August 9, 1945

August 15, 1945
Reasons for Bombings
There are many reasons as to why the US administration decided to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Interestingly, these reasons are still debated today.
1. The US wanted to force Japan to surrender as quickly as possible to minimize the number of American deaths.
2. The United States needed to use the atomic bomb before the Soviet Union entered the war to establish the fact that the US were a stronger power.
3. The United States wanted to use the world’s first atomic bomb for an actual attack and observe its effect.
Because of these reasons, the United States were in a hurry to drop the bomb. Shortly after a successful test in a desert in New Mexico, they dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

December 1942-The Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. This project began in 1941, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. It started out with a few scientists, and eventually grew to more than 130,000 people and it cost nearly $2 Billion (about $26 Billion today). Some people might say, $2 billion for a weapon… but this is not only the cost for the weapons. The construction of the factories and the materials needed for production covered 90% of the cost, and the other 10% was for the production of the weapons. Research and production took place at more than 30 sites across the United Kingdom and the United States.
September 2, 1945-Japan Surrenders and the war is over
Japan finally surrenders after losing hundreds of thousands of people. They did not want to have any more casualties, so they decided to surrender.
August 6, 1945-Hiroshima, Japan is bombed
The American President Truman, came up with an atomic bomb plan. There was immediate agreement and plans were made to attack Japan. The US believed by dropping the bomb on Hiroshima, Japan would surrender and thus end the war. Also, they believed that they could scare the USSR.
Hiroshima had been largely untouched by bombs or attacks, so residents believed it was safe there. Because of this, many civilians lived in this city. This is partly what made Hiroshima the target. Hiroshima had been a port and an industrial center with a population of around 300,000 people. It was also the headquarters of Japan’s 2nd army with more than 40,000 soldiers stationed there.
The morning of August 6th, 1945, the people of Hiroshima are living and working, not aware of what is to come. Enola Gay (the bomber plane carrying the bomb) awaits orders, flying above the city, ready to drop the bomb. The order is give, and history is changed forever.
The first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, at approximately 8:15 a.m. Hiroshima was chosen to be bombed because it produced lots of the war’s weapons. The bomb that was used was nicknamed Little Boy. It explodes 2,000 feet above ground. As a result, the city is in ruins, and inhabitable due to the destruction and radiation.
The United States of America believed that after the bombing of Hiroshima the Japanese would surrender because they did not want any more casualties, however Japan did not surrender, causing the United States to drop another bomb.

August 9, 1945-Nagasaki, Japan is bombed
Since the Japanese did not surrender, the United States decided to drop another bomb, hoping this would force them to surrender.
The horror continues on the morning of August 9, 1945. Just three days after the first bombing, the United States drop an even bigger bomb on Nagasaki. This was a plutonium bomb, nicknamed Fat Man. Nagasaki was not the initial target. Kokura (a town in the middle of Japan) was their first target, however there were many clouds making it difficult to locate Kokura, so the location changed to Nagasaki. The damage in Nagasaki was not as severe due to its geographical location. This helped shelter many parts of the city because of the mountains and hills.

Sources:
Casualties and Losses
Hundreds of thousands of people lost their lives because of these bombs.
Nagasaki
•45,000 people vaporised
• A third of the city flattened
•Fires consumed the city
•Severe burns and injuries caused many deaths.

Hiroshima
• 80,000 out of a population of 300,000 were vaporized in heat and radiation
• Buildings crushed
• Inhabitants crushed
• Fire consumed Hiroshima
• Doctors/nurses killed causing limited medical help
• Severe burns and flying debris related injuries occurred

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4785786
http://americanhistory.about.com/library/timelines/bltimelinemanhat.htm
http://www.cnduk.org/campaigns/global-abolition/hiroshima-a-nagasaki
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project#Bombing_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
http://www.osti.gov/manhattan-project-history/Events/1942/final_approval_build.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test)

Thanks for listening!!!
'My god, what have we done?'
-Pilot
Full transcript