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Systematic Reviews: planning and performing searches to maximize recall and minimize bias

Efficient retrieval plays a significant and central role in gathering evidence for a systematic review. This presentation will cover the process involved in the design of search strategies for bibliographic databases and grey literature.
by

Benedicte N

on 23 March 2013

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Transcript of Systematic Reviews: planning and performing searches to maximize recall and minimize bias

Recall is the sensitivity of the literature search. What is a systematic review? A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Key Characteristics a clearly stated set of objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies;
an explicit, reproducible methodology;
a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that would meet the eligibility criteria;
an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies, for example through the assessment of risk of bias; and
a systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies. Bias "[...] any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systemically different from the truth". (Last, 1988) Systematic Reviews:
Planning and Performing Searches
to Maximize Recall and Minimize Bias Bénédicte Nauche
Hospital Royal Victoria
ext. 35292
April 8th, 2013 Copyright © 2013 by MUHC discuss process involved in the design of search strategies Today's Objectives Cochrane Handbook
for Systematic Reviews
of Interventions Finding What Works
in Health Care:
Standards for
Systematic Reviews The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies
2011 Recall “It is widely believed that valid reviews require as complete as possible an identification of relevant studies, thus recall is the most important search parameter from a scientific perspective. Comprehensive searching, with the objective of high recall, is considered standard practice when conducting systematic reviews.” (Sampson, 2006) Last JM. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press; 1988: 13-14. Sampson M, et al. An alternative to the hand searching gold standard: validating methodological search filters using relative recall. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006;6:33. Publication bias: Occurs when investigators, reviewers, and editors submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings
Gray literature bias: Occurs when the results reported in journal articles are systematically different from those presented in other reports, such as working papers, dissertations, or conference abstracts
Time-lag bias: Occurs when the speed of publication depends on the direction and strength of the trial results
Abstract to full publication bias: Occurs when the full publication of studies that have been initially presented at conferences or in other informal formats is dependent on the direction and/or strength of their findings
Citation bias: Occurs when the chance of a study being cited by others is associated with its results. Therefore, retrieving literature from scanning reference lists may produce a biased sample of articles, rendering the conclusions of an article less reliable
Search bias: Occurs when there is a bias in captured studies resulting from an inadequate or incomplete search
Country of conduct bias
Language bias (Tricco, 2008) Tricco AC, Tetzlaff J, Sampson M, Fergusson D, Cogo E, Horsley T, et al. Few systematic reviews exist documenting the extent of bias: a systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008 May;61(5):422-34. References Glossary of the Cochrane Collaboration Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (1.2.2 section) First Version of a SR Search Strategy
Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE (R) <1996 to November 21, 2012>
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1 exp HIV/ (57781)
2 exp HIV infections/ (144690)
3 HIV Antibodies/ (4520)
4 exp HIV Antigens/ (8825)
5 hiv.ti,ab. (165287)
6 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.ti,ab. (5487)
7 acquired immune deficiency syndrome.ti,ab. (1756)
8 human immunodeficiency.ti,ab. (46024)
9 human immune deficiency.ti,ab. (157)
10 (aids adj1 virus*).ti,ab. (379)
11 or/1-10 (206814)
12 ("PointCare NOW" or CyFlow or Coulter or "Dynal T4 Quant" or mBio or daktari or zyomyx or Burnet or "dried blood spot*").ti,ab. (2752)
13 exp CD4 Lymphocyte Count/ (17086)
14 exp CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/ (58992)
15 Antigens, CD4/ (7945)
16 14 or 15 (64408)
17 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur*).mp. (3878284)
18 16 and 17 (23804)
19 (cd4 adj3 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur*)).mp. (23583)
20 12 or 13 or 18 or 19 (48336)
21 11 and 20 (24215)
22 Point-of-Care Systems/ (6000)
23 (point of care or POC or POCT).ti,ab. (6028)
24 (rapid adj2 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur*)).ti,ab. (14285)
25 (handheld or portable or mobile or bedside).ti,ab. (62494)
26 device*.ti,ab. (157208)
27 strip$1.ti,ab. (17499)
28 22 or 23 or 24 or 25 or 26 or 27 (249593)
29 21 and 28 (266)
30 limit 29 to (humans and yr="2000 -Current") (203) Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R) <1946 to Present>
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1 exp HIV/ (75915)
2 exp HIV infections/ (212454)
3 HIV Antibodies/ (9058)
4 exp HIV Antigens/ (13090)
5 HIV Long-Term Survivors/ (499)
6 Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/ (2214)
7 hiv*.mp,jw,in. (248593)
8 (acquired adj2 immun$ adj2 syndrome$1).mp,jw,in. (89260)
9 (acquired immun$ adj3 deficiency).mp,jw,in. (11940)
10 (human adj2 immun$ adj2 deficiency).mp,jw,in. (1671)
11 human immun?deficiency.mp,jw,in. (71891)
12 ((aids or lymphadenopathy) adj5 (virus* or viral or retrovirus or lentivirus or infection* or syndrome*)).mp. (38348)
13 aids.jw,in. (56728)
14 Anti-HIV Agents/ (29492)
15 Antiretroviral therapy, highly active/ (14880)
16 ((ART or HAART or anti?retrovir* or anti retrovir*) adj3 (therap* or regimen* or initiat* or program* or start* or naive or monitor* or treatment* or test* or result* or administ* or clinic* or service* or respon* or patient* or drug$1 or medicat* or agent$1)).mp. (43472)
17 or/1-16 (310489)
18 ("PointCare NOW" or CyFlow or Coulter or ((dynal or dynamal) adj2 (t4 or cd4 or quant)) or mBio or daktari or zyomyx or Burnet or "dried blood spot*" or (pima* adj2 (cd4 or analyzer$1 or poc or point or alere))).mp. (4355)
19 exp CD4 Lymphocyte Count/ (18931)
20 serologic tests/ (15626)
21 AIDS serodiagnosis/ (5766)
22 Flow Cytometry/ (95708)
23 cytomet*.mp. (147276)
24 cell analys*.mp. (2616)
25 exp CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/ (76248)
26 Antigens, CD4/ (12499)
27 25 or 26 (85448)
28 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur* or analys* or technol* or diagnos* or marker* or biomarker* or response or estimat* or enumerat* or quantif* or percentage or ratio).mp. (9993082)
29 27 and 28 (58352)
30 (cd4 adj3 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur* or analys* or technol* or diagnos* or marker* or biomarker* or response or estimat* or enumerat* or quantif* or percentage or ratio)).mp. (36205)
31 18 or 19 or 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or 24 or 29 or 30 (247196)
32 17 and 31 (40637)
33 Point-of-Care Systems/ (5995)
34 Physicians' Offices/ (1408)
35 (point of care or POC or POCT).mp. (9847)
36 point of service.mp. (312)
37 ((rapid* or quick* or express or fast or prompt* or instant* or immediat*) adj2 (test* or count* or monitor* or screen* or assay* or measur* or analys* or technol* or diagnos* or marker* or biomarker* or response or estimat* or enumerat* or quantif* or percentage or ratio or answer*)).mp. (79566)
38 (handheld or (hand adj held) or portable or mobile or remote* or bedside or (bed adj2 side)).mp. (129829)
39 device*.mp. (242643)
40 strip$1.mp. (32622)
41 microchip$1.mp. (3990)
42 (near adj2 patient*).mp. (1559)
43 (physician* adj2 office*).mp. (4631)
44 ((extra* or outside) adj2 laborator*).mp. (878)
45 decentr*.mp. (5574)
46 ancillary.mp. (8892)
47 (alternat* adj2 site*).mp. (2751)
48 or/33-47 (500272)
49 32 and 48 (1109)
50 limit 49 to yr="2000 -Current" (854)
51 limit 50 to humans (793)
52 limit 50 to animals (38)
53 50 not (51 or 52) (55)
54 51 or 53 (848)
55 remove duplicates from 54 (835)
56 letter/ (775604)
57 comment/ (517963)
58 editorial/ (318375)
59 or/56-58 (1207686)
60 55 not 59 (817) https://www.dropbox.com/s/h91sxlsgqd0lszp/search%20strategy%20stage1.png
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