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Section 2: The Internal Structure of Leaves
Transcript of Section 2: The Internal Structure of Leaves
Ground Vascular 3 But ask the animals, and they will teach you, or the birds of the air, and they will tell you; or speak to the earth, and it will teach you, or let the fish of the sea inform you. Which of all these does not know that the hand of the LORD has done this? In his hand is the life of every creature and the breath of all mankind. Job 12:7-10 covers and protects the outside of the plant, gas exchange (O2 and CO2), absorption of nutrients
mediates most of the interactions between a plant and its environment Dermal Tissue FUNCTION: Epidermis
Cork Two types: 2 FUNCTION: 1. Epidermis Protects and covers leaves, roots, stems, and other exposed areas
Prevents excessive water loss and injury by outside forces
Help increase water absorption in the roots Has a thick waxy cuticle that helps seal in water Very thin layer of cells (sometimes just one cell layer thick) STRUCTURE: LOCATION: Outside covering of all plant parts FUNCTION: 2. Cork protects and waterproofs, gas exchange and absorption of nutrients STRUCTURE: several layers of cells that die soon after forming
contain a waterproof chemical
no waxy cuticle Location: Layer of outer bark on stems and roots of woody plants Derma means "skin" Epi means "upon"
Derma means what? Ground Tissue Structure: thin-walled cells that stay alive and keep their nucleus
thick-walled cells FUNCTION: carries out basic metabolic functions for the plant
specific functions depend on the location in the plant LOCATION: makes up a lot of the inside of most plants tissue is packed with chloroplasts (which contain what?)
specialized in photosynthesis In Leaves: In Stems and Roots: storage of water, sugar and starch (or food) Throughout the plant: surrounds and supports vascular tissue Parenchyma
Support and Strengthening Tissue Two Types of Ground Tissue: 2 FUNCTION: 1. Parenchyma: Makes and stores food Structure: cells of various shapes containing large vacuoles and often chloroplasts Locations: Found in roots, stems, leaves and fruits FUNCTION: 2. Support and Strengthening Tissue provides support for leaves, stems, roots Structure: fibers composed of thick-walled cells
only live a short time but the thick walls are still support structures after the cell dies Location: roots, stems, and leaves (especially the veins and petiole) FUNCTION: Vascular Sap-conducting tissues
(transports food and water throughout the plant) Structure: composed of elongated, tubular cells stacked end to end Location: found in stems and roots Compares to our circulatory system or a plumbing system Tissue found in the veins and petioles of leaves Xylem
Phloem 2 kinds: FUNCTION: 1. Xylem transports water and dissolved minerals (sap)upward from the roots to the leaves Structure: complex tissue composed of thick-walled cells
TRACHEIDS: narrow, elongated, tapered at one end
VESSELS: wider, long tubes with perforations to allow for quicker water flow Location: roots, stems and leaves (especially in the veins and petiole) FUNCTION: 2. Phloem transports food manufactured in the leaves (sap) downward from the leaves to the rest of the plant Structure: 2 types:
SIEVE TUBES: cells either lack or have modified organelles, also have pores in their walls that connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells (to allow substances to pass freely cell-to-cell)
COMPANION CELLS: in rows, contain organelles Location: roots, stems, and leaves (especially veins and petiole) But wait...
There is another tissue...
A fourth tissue that is not as major as the first three...
and it is called: Meristematic Tissue Why are plant tissues important? What does the fact that there are different types with specific functions and structures show? Meristematic Tissue FUNCTION: growth and repair of plants and plant parts STRUCTURE: rapidly growing and dividing cells that differentiate to produce new tissues and repair worn-out tissue LOCATION: definite growth regions (root tip, stem tip, cambium layers) Once mature, meristematic tissue forms the various other types of tissue in the roots, stems, and leaves Cambium tissue is one of the most important meristematic tissues, includes 2 types: VASCULAR CAMBIUM: produces vascular tissue CORK CAMBIUM: produces cork tissue Leaves that stop growing do not contain meristematic tissue, but do contain the other 3 major types 2 1 A B C Vascular Tissues