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Early Flight History- Miss Moriarty

History
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Blah di

on 16 March 2014

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Transcript of Early Flight History- Miss Moriarty

History of the Origins of Flight
EARLY ATTEMPTS OF FLIGHT
Early attempts:
Kites have been important to the development of flight as they were the foundation to
hot air balloons and gliders
. It was the discovery that the kite that could fly in the air (by the Chinese) which started humans thinking of flying. Kites were used in religious ceremonies by the Chinese however they also built many bright, colourful kites also for enjoyment. Other kites that were more sophisticated were used to test
weather conditions
.
Approximately
400BC - China


Kites
Humans for many centuries have attempted to fly like the birds by creating their own man made wings. Some materials that they used to make wings have included feathers or light weight wood which have been attached to their arms to test their ability to fly. The majority of the time, these attempts failed as the results show that the muscles a human arm are not like a bird's and do not have the same strength.
Humans try to fly like birds




Hero of Alexandria was an ancient Greek engineer who worked with both
air pressure and steam
to create sources of power. During one experiment Hero developed the aeolipile which
used jets of steam to create rotary motion.
Hero attached a sphere to the top of a water kettle where a fire below the kettle turned the water into steam, The gas then travelled through pipes to the sphere. There were two L-shaped tubes on each of the sides of the sphere and this allowed the gas to escape, which
gave it a thrust that caused it to rotate.
Hero
and the Aeolipile
Leonardo da Vinci made the first real sophisticated researches of flight during the 1480's where he made over
100
drawings that demonstrated/illustrated his theories on flight.
One theory was the Ornithopter flying machine, however this was
never actually created.
This was a design that Leonardo da Vinci created to specifically show how people could fly and now, the modern day
helicopter
is based on this early concept from Da Vinci.
1485 Leonardo da Vinci - The
Ornithopter




Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the first hot air balloon. They used the smoke from a fire to blow the hot air into a silk bag where the silk bag was fastened to a basket. The hot air rose and this allowed the balloon to be
lighter-than-air
. In 1783, the first passengers in the balloon were a few
sheep, a rooster and a duck-
the balloon reached the height of approximately 6,000 feet in height and travelled more than
1
mile. After this, they started to send people up in balloons and the first manned flight was on November 21, 1783, the passengers being Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent.
1783,
Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier- the First
Hot Air Balloon

George Cayley wrote on
Ariel Navigation
which shows that a
fixed-wing aircraft
with a power system for
propulsion
and a
tail
to assist in the control of the airplane would be the best way to allow man to fly. Cayley designed many different versions of
gliders
that the human body and its movements could control. For approximately fifty years he developed and improved his creations where at one stage he changed the shape of the wings so that the air would flow
over
the wings correctly. At another point, Cayley designed a
tail
to assist with the stability of the gliders. He also eventually recognized that
power
would be needed if the flight was to be in the air for a long time.
1799 - 1850's - George Cayley
19Th And 20Th Century attempts
1891 Otto Lilienthal
Otto Lilienthal was a German engineer who studied aerodynamics and worked to design a glider that had the ability to fly. He was the
first person to design a glider that could hold and fly a person with the ability to fly long distances.

He based his studies of birds on the flight of birds and he wrote a book on aerodynamics which was published in 1889 and this was used as a basis of the Wright Brothers' designs. Sadly, Otto was tragically killed after more than 2,500 flights, when he lost control due to a sudden gust of strong wind and crashed into the ground.
In 1894 Octave Chanute published Progress in Flying Machines. This book gathered all the knowledge that he could find about flight accomplishments.
The Wright Brothers used this book as a tool for many of their experiments. Octave Chanute often spoke with the Wright Brothers and commented on their technical progress.
1894 Octave Chanute
The Wright Brothers - Orville and Wilbur Wright
The process of invention which lead to the first successful airplane completed by the Wright brothers was a process of trial and error. They first researched and experimented with the
mechanics
of how things fly
.

T
hey did this by studying problems other experimenters came across and looked for answers. They decided the
control
of the aircraft would be the most difficult problem they would have to face.
The Wright Brothers used different kinds of
kites
to test aerodynamics and theories of flight control. They developed their piloting abilities by making over
1000
flights on different types of gliders at Kitty Hawk between 1900 and 1902 and at the time of their first powered flight, they were the most experienced pilots in the world.
From 1903 to 1905, they continued to perfect their piloting skills on different types of powered aircrafts.
The Wright Brothers were the first to fly a controllable self-propelled,
heavier than air
machine on December 17, 1903. This was a very historic event which was broadcast and celebrated around the world.
First Practical Helicopter
9 Mar 1939
Important Achievements in Early Flight History
Charles Lindbergh
On May 21, 1927, Charles A. Lindbergh completed the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight in history
Flew his Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis" 5,810 kilometers (3,610 miles) between Roosevelt Field on Long Island, New York, and Paris, France, in 33 hours, 30 minutes.
When he landed at Le Bourget Field in Paris, Lindbergh became a world hero who would remain in the public eye for decades.
The aftermath of the flight was the "Lindbergh boom" in aviation: aircraft industry stocks rose in value and interest in flying skyrocketed.
Lindbergh's subsequent U.S. tour in the "Spirit of St. Louis" demonstrated the potential of the airplane as a safe, reliable mode of transportation.
Following the U.S. tour, Lindbergh took the aircraft on a goodwill flight to Central and South America, where flags of the countries he visited were painted on the cowling.
Amelia Earhart
In 1923, Earhart, fondly known as "Lady Lindy," became the 16th woman to be issued a pilot's license.
She had several notable flights, becoming the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1928, as well as the first person to fly over both the Atlantic and Pacific.
In 1937, she mysteriously disappeared while trying to circumnavigate the globe from the equator.
Since then, several theories have formed regarding Earhart's last days, many of which have been connected to various artifacts that have been found on Pacific islands—including clothing, tools and, more recently, freckle cream. Earhart was legally declared dead in 1939.

"The woman who can create her own job is the woman who will win fame and fortune."– Amelia Earhart
The Hindenburg Disaster
It was the first airliner to provide regularly scheduled service between Europe and North America.
Best remembered for the fiery Hindenburg disaster of 1937
It was the fastest and most comfortable way to cross the Atlantic in its day.
Hindenburg’s
2-1/2 day crossing of the North Atlantic
was an astounding accomplishment at a time when even the fastest transatlantic ocean liners (such as the Blue Riband-winning Queen Mary, Normandie, and Bremen) made the trip in five days, and slower ships took as long as 10 days.
When completed, LZ-129 was 803.8 feet long, with a diameter of 135.1 feet, and a total gas capacity of 7,062,000 cubic feet of hydrogen.
LZ-129 and its sister ship, LZ-130, are still the largest objects ever to fly.
Hindenburg left Frankfurt with 97 souls onboard; 62 survived the crash at Lakehurst, although many suffered serious injuries.
Thirteen of the 36 passengers, and twenty-two of the 61 crew, died as a result of the crash, along with one member of the civilian landing party
The destruction of the Hindenburg led to the end of the rigid airship
Hindengurg Video
1) Describe how the Hindenburg operated
2) What were the circumstances that led to the explosion
3) What are some of the theories behind why the Hindenburg exploded?
The Zeppelin
Large airship created in the late 1800s by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin of Germany
Ships had hydrogen 'gasbags' inside to help it fly
It was the first air service to fly commercially
Used in WWI for reconnaisannce missions by the navy
Some bombing raids were run using incendiaries
After WWI, Zeppelins started to focus more on commercial flights
Zeppelins grew larger and could fly further
Creators circumnavigated the globe in the late 20s and early 30s
The Graf Zeppelin LZ 127 was the famous ship that travelled the globe
It travelled almost 50,000 km, going from Germany to Tokyo to Los Angeles and back to Germany
Sources
http://www.slideshare.net/SamsWorld7/the-history-of-flightWright Brothershttp://airandspace.si.edu/wrightbrothers/index_full.cfmCharles Lindberghhttp://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/gal100/stlouis.htmlAmelia Earharthttp://www.biography.com/people/amelia-earhart-9283280Howard Hugheshttp://www.biography.com/people/howard-hughes-9346282-The Aviator Moviehttp://www.damaris.org/content/content.php?type=1&id=235Hindenburghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stamp_US_1930_65c.jpghttp://06880danwoog.com/2012/05/06/elwood-betts-remembers-the-hindenburg/http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/upshot/hindenburg-disaster-75-years-later-203824928.html
http://scaa.usask.ca/gallery/arrow/
The Avro Arrow
Canada came of age in WWII and had a vast industrial potential
There were no suitable supersonic planes that could shoot down Soviet nuclear bombers
Avro was given the contract but, like Howard Hughes, rand into budgetary problems
Each Arrow cost $12.5 million each, a staggering amount as other planes of the time cost around $2 million
By the time 1961 came about, bombers were not as much of a threat as interballistic missiles
The Iroquois Engine
Each jet had two Iroquois engines
The engine was so sophisticated that it remains one of the most advanced jet engines in the world today, 50 years later
The Avro had 5 working prototypes and reduced the cost to $7.8 million
Critics still slammed its usefulness because of the missile
In Feb 1959 Diefenbaker ordered the program's termination and the destruction of everything involved
The Arrow was a truly Canadian product by Canadians for Canada.
The Arrow and the Iroquois programmes were a pinnacle of Canadian aviation achievement, the like of which we may never see again.
It was a time when the eyes of the aviation world were on Canada.
The design, construction and development of these fine products was the Canadian equivalent to putting a man on the Moon.
The tragedy is that although we demonstrated success, we were never able to reap the benefits.
Aviation today
Recent disaster Missing Malaysian Airlines flight MH370
Full transcript