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APRL - 145 Textiles

Chapter 6: Fiber Manufacturing Process
by

Laura Oliver

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of APRL - 145 Textiles

Objectives
Describe the process of manufacturing fibers
Identify the difference and similarities between natural and manufactured fibers
Understand how fibers are modified and the resulting changes in performance Ch. 6: The Fiber Manufacturing Process 1. General History and Terms
2. Fiber Spinning Process
3. Fiber Modifications and Performance
4. Video: Plastic into Polyester
5. Fiber Activity 1. History and Terms 3. Fiber Modifications and Performance 2. Fiber Spinning Process Any fiber derived by a process from a substance that any any point is not a fiber Manufactured Fiber Acetate
(1865) Rayon
(1910) Nylon
(1939) Acrylic
(1950) Polyester
(1953) Generic Fiber Names vs. Trade Names Family of fibers grouped by chemical composition
Patent protected brand names Two types: Regenerated and Synthetic Originally aimed at people who could not afford silk Now fit and performance of everyday materials are tied to manufactured fibers.
Spandex undergarments and active sportswear
nylon carpets and safety equipment In the United States, manufactured fibers comprise 83% of the total fiber market:
50% Apparel
89% Interiors
91% Technical products Process (More) Terms Methods Raw material
Spinning solution / Dope
Melt
Extrusion
Spinneret
Filament fiber / yarn
Filament tow 1. Prepare viscous dope or melt solution
2. Extrude melt through spinneret
3. Solidify to form fiber 1. Wet Spinning
2. Dry Spinning
3. Melt Spinning Terms History (Even more) Terms Parent Fiber
Fiber Modifications
Macrofiber
Microfiber
Ultrafine Fiber Nanofiber
Mixed denier Filament bundling
Fiber additives
Bicomponent fiber Fiber Modifications Spinneret Modifications Molecular Structure and Crystallinity Polymer Additives Complex Modifications Fiber Size
Fiber Shape High tenacity - drawing or stretching
Low pilling
Binder staple
Low elongation Delustering
Solution dyeing
Whiteners
Antistatic
Sunlight resistant
Flame resistant
Antibacterial Bicomponent fiber 4. How Plastic Bottles are Recycled into Polyester 5. Fiber Activity Groups:
1 - Acetate
2 - Rayon
3 - Acrylic
4 - Nylon
5 - PLA
6 - Polyester
7 - Spandex
8 - Glass Fiber Answer:
When was this fiber invented? Or, when did it come into popular use?
What are the physical and/or chemical properties of this fiber?
Is the use of this fiber common or rare in today's marketplace? In what industry are you most likely to encounter this fiber and how is it used? Is there a broad or narrow range of applications?
Are there any environmental concerns with the production or use of this fiber?
Full transcript