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Scientific and Medical innovations of the 20th and 21st century
Lauren O'Connoron 28 April 2011
Transcript of Scientific and Medical innovations of the 20th and 21st century
By: Lauren O'Connor, Jake Arentzen,and Ashley Wood Vaccines Transplants Antibiotics Disease Space Artificial hearts/Limbs Birth Control Google Images." Google. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imghp>. Vaccines are a necessity in our society today and if it weren't for vaccines the world population would not be as high as it is.
-One of the first vaccines developed was in 1897 with the plague vaccine.
-Fast forward to 1923 the diptheria vaccine was developed. -Through the 1920's and 1940's pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis, influenza all had vaccines developed.
-The Polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk in 1952, it was developed as an inactivated vaccine. After being tested in 1955, it soon became widespread and ended up helping many people.
-An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin in 1957. It was licensed in 1962.
-Together, they have virtually eliminated polio, and over the years, have saved many lives.
-Other vaccines were developed for diseases like Mumps, Pneumonia, Meningtits, Hepatitius A in the time period from late 1960's to late 1990's.(
-A continuity of is that vaccinnes are still used today on children and adults to prevent diseases like polio, chicken pox, and H1N1.) -Although the idea of birth control has been around for centuries, the first medicine, aka "the pill", did not come out until 1960.
-However things like Planned parenting clinics and a more effective version of the diaphragm were created in the infancy of the 1900's.
-As they years progressed, especially in America, the idea of birth control became more and more apealing.
-Then with the creation of the pill the use of birth control exploded and is found in almost every single store in the world.
-With the creation of the pill it led to the creation of the morning after pill which is considered to be an effective alternative to admenirasting daily forms of birth control -Among the first antibiotics was Penicillin. Accidentally discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming, it opened up a whole new door in the world of medicine.
-Not only did it help people feel better, it also helped save lives. Many soldiers were given Penicillin during World War Two.
-Other diseases like strepotococcal and staph infections were also fixed with antibiotics.
-Along the way the antibiotics category diveated to specifically treating virus (aka antivirals) like siphillus and H.I.V.
-It also has a special branch that treats funguses (aka antifungal) like athletes foot. -In the 20th century started off with the discovery that thcontinents used to be connected together like a jigsaw puzzle. Discovered by a German geolgist.
-Moving foreward to 1903 the wright brothers tested and flew the first airplane. In 1904 E.B. Wilson and Nettie stevens discover the x and y choromosomes in genetics.
-In 1905 Albert Einstein publishes theory of relativity.
-The big bang theory was developed in 1912 by Vesto Slipher in the Lowell observatory.
-A year later Ernest Rutherford created the first model of the atom. -Moving foreward to 1929 Edwin Hubble stats the expansion of the univers from the big bang.
-Then in 1939 albert Einstein tells the U.S. president about germany's development of an atomic bomb. And soon their after the Manhattan project starts.
-Skipping foreward to 1953 Watson and Crick discover the double helix shape of DNA.
-1961 Heinrich Matthaei discovers Messanger RNA.
-1987 sees the creation of the Human Genome Project.
-Three years later the Hubble telescope is launched. 1996 sees the first cloning of a sheep named dolly. -With the advent of World War 1 there was a new strain of Influenza (the common cold ) that killed more people in one year than world war 1 &2 combined.
-As the 20th century went on, people began to live longer and better, due to discoveries and advances in the medical field.
-However with the creation of penicillin many disease were staved off and people got by for many years.
-Other diseases cured and vaccines created for are dyptheria, polio, whooping cough.
-Some of these deseases like whooping cough have been starting to come back and resistant to the old vaccines. (All of the diseases are not completly gone, one to two samples of the disease is kept in a secure vault to use in order to create a new vaccine if ever a new strain becomes an epidemic.)
-Even though some diseases, like AIDS has appeared recently; other diseases like cance troubled people, for decades decades. -In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite into orbit, Sputnik 1.
-Due to the competition of the Cold War, in 1961, President Kennedy predicted that a man would land on the moon in a decade.
-That year, in Russia, Laika became the first dog to go up into space.
-In 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the Sea of Tranquility, with its crew including Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldwin being the first to walk on the moon.
-Apollo 18 was the last mission to the moon
-Then, in 1998, the international space station started production. It is still in use today.
-Mars is now the current goal for space organizations and it is hoped by 2020 that we will have astronauts setting foot on the landscape of the red planet. The world's first heart transplant was performed by Christiaan Barnard on December 3, 1967 in Cape Town, South Africa on Louis Washkansky. The first American heart transplant was at Maimonides Medical Center. Common procedure usually involves taking a working organ from a recently deceased patient and removing (or keeping) the current patient's heart for support. Basic Science -In 1902 medical students in Austria did the first effective kidney transplant into a human from an animal kidney.
-From there doctors experinced some successful animal to human organ transplants, however the patients died shortly after the transplant.
-But then in 1933 a very succesful kidney transplant was done but it wasn't realized by doctors that the blood types of the donor and recipient didn't match and the kidney never worked.
-In 1954 the first completly sucessful kidney translpant was done between two twins.
-Then in 1963 the first lung transplant was done and later that year a liver transplant was done.
-Then in 1967 Dr. Christian Barnard did the first whole heart transplant the patient died 18 days after the operation.
-Then in 1987 the first double lung transplant was succesfully done and.
-Three years later Dr. Downall did the first bone marrow transplant which was capable of curing luekimia.
-Fast foreward 8 years the first dual transplant of kidney and pancreas was done.
-The sixteenth recipient was Linda Arentzen who 12 years later the kidney is beginning to fail but the pancreas is still going strong. (This was all done a Jefferson hospital. Please make note that transplant requires antirejection medication that allows the body to accept it and it to be used. In 1904 E.B. Wilson and Nettie stevens discover the x and y choromosomes in genetics. Ernest Rutherford created the first model of the atom. Three years later the Hubble telescope is launched. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite into orbit, Sputnik 1. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldwin being the first to walk on the moon The Polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk in 1952, it was developed as an inactivated vaccine. Fast foreward 8 years the first dual transplant of kidney and pancreas was done. in 1963 the first lung transplant was done "the pill", did not come out until 1960 The first American heart transplant was at Maimonides Medical Center.
Birth Control Chart." Seasonique. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://birthcontrolforu.com>.
History of Medicine :: Antibiotics -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/372460/history-of-medicine/35671/Antibiotics>. "CBSNews.com." Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/transplants/timeline.html> Bellis, Mary. "20th Century - Timeline and Inventions of the 20th Century." Inventors. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth.htm>.