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Chemistry - Chapter 2

Matter
by

Ms. Bolin

on 8 December 2016

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Transcript of Chemistry - Chapter 2

MATTER
2A The Classification of Matter
First of all, what is matter?
Properties of Matter
physical
chemical
"how the particles that compose the natural world relate to one another"
things you observe with your 5 senses:
color, texture, weight, size, taste, sound
density, malleability, ductility, conductivity
"how matter changes in the presence of other matter"
also, "the kinds of changes that materials can undergo"
Changes in Matter
change in material without change in identity
state & shape - breaking,
boiling, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation
change in material resulting in a different composition
combustion, decomposition, synthesis, recombination
Pure
Mixtures
elements
compounds
homogeneous
heterogeneous
homogeneous
same
uniform
evenly mixed
solutions
heterogeneous
different
not uniform
distinct
phases
element
compound
Dominion Science Problem
Is there some way to strengthen metal parts of aircraft so that accidents and loss of life can be avoided?
Metal under repeated tension tends to break
How can we stop this?
simplest - only one type
mono-, di-, & poly-atomic
groups = molecules
two or more atoms
distinct = molecules
crystal array = formula units
what is it?
chemical names & symbols
how many?
chemical subscripts & coefficients
Write the formula & list the number and types of atoms
chemical subscripts
coefficients
Classify
-Element?
-Compound?
-Mixture?
2B Energy and Matter
First of all, what is energy?
energy
ability to do work
something that matter has
force through a distance
potential energy
kinetic energy
thermal energy
electrical energy
electromagnetic energy
chemical energy
mechanical energy
nuclear energy
acoustic energy
thermodynamics
heat
powerful
* Industrial Revolution
* Ubiquitous
* Law of conservation of mass-energy
first law of thermodynamics
mass & energy can be converted back and forth,
but they never go away - they are conserved
stuff naturally wants to be lazy - things move
toward disorder and use the least possible energy
second law of thermodynamics
entropy
you always have to define your
system
Brownian motion
kinetic-molecular theory
http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/brownian.htm
kinetic energy
three degrees of freedom
translational
vibrational
rotational
depends on mass and velocity
internal energy sum of component energies temperature
changes in thermal energy
exothermic
endothermic
you can never get to abosulte zero
third law of thermodynamics
Standard Units
for Energy
joule (J)
calorie (cal)
2C The States of Matter
particle theory
stuff is made of smaller stuff
forces between particles
motion of particles
(due to internal energy)
vs.
solid
liquid
gas
crystalline
amorphous
Definite Shape
Definite Volume
Particles Close
Vibrate in a fixed position
viscosity
Definite Volume
No Definite Shape
Particles Mobile
Stay close together
Forms a free surface
Indefinite Shape
Indefinite Volume
Highly Compressible
Particles far apart &
move at high speed
particle speed
http://www.alanmacfarlane.com/glass/birm2.html
http://www.glassnotes.com/WindowPanes.html
plasma
Very energetic
Ions and electrons
Most common state
in the universe
phase change
change of state
motion is directly related to temperature
Increased
Temperature
vibration speed has increased
particles have slowed down
Decreased
Temperature
Thermal Energy
Is cold a thing?
Melting
Freezing
Vaporization
Boiling
Evaporation
Sublimation
Condensation
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Thermodynamics/therm1d.html
CHEMICAL CHANGES
PHYSICAL CHANGES
operationally defined
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