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Chemistry - Chapter 2
Transcript of Chemistry - Chapter 2
2A The Classification of Matter
First of all, what is matter?
Properties of Matter
"how the particles that compose the natural world relate to one another"
things you observe with your 5 senses:
color, texture, weight, size, taste, sound
density, malleability, ductility, conductivity
"how matter changes in the presence of other matter"
also, "the kinds of changes that materials can undergo"
Changes in Matter
change in material without change in identity
state & shape - breaking,
boiling, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation
change in material resulting in a different composition
combustion, decomposition, synthesis, recombination
Dominion Science Problem
Is there some way to strengthen metal parts of aircraft so that accidents and loss of life can be avoided?
Metal under repeated tension tends to break
How can we stop this?
simplest - only one type
mono-, di-, & poly-atomic
groups = molecules
two or more atoms
distinct = molecules
crystal array = formula units
what is it?
chemical names & symbols
chemical subscripts & coefficients
Write the formula & list the number and types of atoms
2B Energy and Matter
First of all, what is energy?
ability to do work
something that matter has
force through a distance
* Industrial Revolution
* Law of conservation of mass-energy
first law of thermodynamics
mass & energy can be converted back and forth,
but they never go away - they are conserved
stuff naturally wants to be lazy - things move
toward disorder and use the least possible energy
second law of thermodynamics
you always have to define your
three degrees of freedom
depends on mass and velocity
internal energy sum of component energies temperature
changes in thermal energy
you can never get to abosulte zero
third law of thermodynamics
2C The States of Matter
stuff is made of smaller stuff
forces between particles
motion of particles
(due to internal energy)
Vibrate in a fixed position
No Definite Shape
Stay close together
Forms a free surface
Particles far apart &
move at high speed
Ions and electrons
Most common state
in the universe
change of state
motion is directly related to temperature
vibration speed has increased
particles have slowed down
Is cold a thing?