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Community Ecology PPT

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by

Kayla Kim

on 16 November 2015

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Transcript of Community Ecology PPT

What determines the
number of species

in a community?

-Species diversity is highest in the
tropics and declines
as we move from the equator toward the poles.

Community Ecology PPT
What are the primary and secondary succession and how do they affect communities?
By: Ashi Dhingra & Kayla Kim 4th period
How can we classify species according to their roles in a community?
How do species
interact
with one another?
Primary succession
is the colonization of living organisms into an area that was not previously colonized by any living things.
Secondary succession
is the regeneration of the living community after a major disturbance.
How do
communities
respond to changes in environmental conditions?
How do
populations
respond to changes in environmental conditions?
How do species differ in their reproductive
patterns?
Species could be divided into
Sexual
(Genetic material is mixture of two individuals) and
Asexual
(Offsprings are exact genetic copies) organisms.
Large number of smaller offspring with little parental care are called r-selected species.(Oppurtunists) Fewer, larger offspring with higher invested parental care are called K-selected species.(Competitors)
What are the major impacts
of human activities on populations, communities and
ecosystems?
What lessons can we learn
from ecology about living
sustainability?
-Wildlife species interact with each other in numerous, complex ways.
-Resources species depend on: Food, Water, Habitat, Sunlight, Prey
-Thus, most interactions involve species competing for the same resources.
-Competition, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, predation

Commensalism
Carrying capacity (K): the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely without degrading the habitat.

Populations grow rapidly with ample resources, but as resources become limited, its growth rate slows and levels off.
As a population levels off, it often fluctuates slightly above and below the carrying capacity.
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. In ecology the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For humans it is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which in turn depends on the maintenance of the natural world and natural resources.Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. Invisible chemical cycles redistribute water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon through the world's living and non-living systems, and have sustained life since the beginning of time. As the earth’s human population has increased, natural ecosystems have declined and changes in the balance of natural cycles has had a negative impact on both humans and other living systems.
Two organisms in which
one benefits
and the
other derives neither benefit nor harm.
Mutualism
Beneficial
to both organisms involved.
Parasitism
Relationship between two organisms where
one is usually harmed
and the
other gets benefits
from the relationship.
-Living things response in change to their environment depends on the
genetic diversity
in the population.
-Increase: Births/immigration
-Decrease: Death/emmigration
-New environmental conditions can cause change in community structure that lead to
one group of species being replaced by other groups.
-Native: "
Natural
" processes without human intervention
-Nonnative: "
Exotic
" "
alien
" species, arrived by human activity.
-Indicator: Biological spcies that indicate the
trait of the environment.
-Keystone: Species that play a
unique and crucial role in the ecosystem.
-Foundation: Species that have a
strong role in structuring a community.
Affects of Primary and Secondary Succession on Communities

Primary succession
takes place in areas where it's very difficult for anything to grow. So there's practically no life, no soil. The area doesn't have any resources to offer to living organisms. But there are always going to be some prokaryotes and protists, because these organisms can be autotrophic, so they can create their own food as long as they have some kind of light.
Next to prokaryotes and protists, lichens and mosses can start to appear if their spores can reach this area.
Soil usually starts to develop in these areas when rocks start to weather away, and as organic nutrients start accumulating from dead prokaryotes, protists, etc. Once soil is present and ready to give plants a home, grasses, shrubs and trees start invading and eventually you get a forest. This is a very long process.
As for secondary succession, it usually occurs when an already existing community is wiped out (usually in the form of a forest fire). This allows for other different plants, such as herbaceous plants and woody shrubs to inhabit the place. Forest fires are actually encouraged in some areas where the forests are old and decaying. If you let the forest burn, a new forest can be created with more diversity than it had before. This is a faster process as compared tp primary succession.
Human activities can be direct threats to ecosystems. They can cause destruction, degradation, and the impairment of biodiversity and other natural resources. Ecosystem threats include
(1) climate change
(2) pollution
(3) habitat destruction
(4) overexploitation
(5) introduction of invasive species.
These threats on ecosystems mean threats on populations and communities because they are inter-dependent. a lot of damage to the ecosystems can lead to extincton of communities.
Native Species
Non native Species
Indicator Species
Keystone Species
Foundation Species
Full transcript