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social psychology

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Victoria Block

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of social psychology

Social Psychology
YAAAAY!

Conclusion
Thank you for your attention!
And one more thing...
is here
Person Perception & Attribution
What we're talking about:
1. Person Perception
2. Attribution Process
3. Close Relationships
4. Attitudes
5. Confomity & Obedience
6. Group Behavior
Person Perception
Contents:
1. Physical Appearance
2. Schemas
3. Stereotypes
4. Subjectivity
5. Evolutionary Perspective
Person Perception
Process of forming impressions of others
How do you form perceptions of others?
Effects of Physical Appearance
1. Good Looking v. Homely
Good looking
Homely
- sociable
- friendly
- poised
- warm
- more competence
- honest/integrity
- carry self better
- anti-social
- stand offish
- cold/distant
- less competent
- more likely to steal
- less likely to get high
paying jobs
No actual correlation b/w
traits and looks
Cognitive Schemas
Social Schemas
organized clusters or ideas about categories of social events and people
what types of
schemas do we have
for high schoolers?
Stereotypes
Stereotypes
widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because their membership in a particular group
What types of stereotypes
do we have in society?
- Gender
- Age
- Race
Why Stereotype?
- Saves times creating perceptions of people
- Most understand not all fall in a stereotype
Subjectivity in Person Perception
People see ambiguous behavior
in a way that fits their schemas
Illusory Correlation
PPL estimate they have seen
more encounters that fit their
schemas/stereotypes more than not
- memory supports this
- remember whats in schema
Spot Light Effect
: ppl believe others are
paying more attention to them than they
really are
Evolutionary Perspective on Person Perception
1. Attractiveness = reproductive success


2. Categorizing people helps w/ separating
friend from foe

- ingroup: group you belong to
- outgroup: group you donot belong to
Attribution
Attribution
inferences ppl draw about causes of event and behaviors
Types of Attribution
Internal: causes of behavior are personal traits
abilities, feelings
External: causes of behavior due to outside events

Stable: long lasting causes
Unstable: short lasting causes
Bias in Attribution
1. Actor-Observer Bias: comparison of attribution between own behavior & person watching the behavior
--> fundamental attribution error: observers' bias in favor of internal attribution in explaining others' behaviors
--> Reason for internal attribution:
1. Situational pressures not apparent
2. Always have freedom of choice

2. Defensive Attribution: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way





3. Self- Serving Bias :tendency to attribute one's success to personal factors and one's failures
to situational failures (works vice versa for the observer!)
Cultural Difference in Attribution
Individualistic: prone to self-serving bias &
fundamental attribution error

Collectivist: prone to self-effacing bias
Close Relationships: Liking & Loving
Interpersonal attraction: positive feelings toward another
Factors in Attraction
Physical Attraction
- Beauty is key determinate in attraction
- more important for males
- Matching Hypothesis: ppl match up w/ equal attractiveness
Similarity Effect
- best to date those you have something
in common with

- attitude alignment: ppl in stable
relationships overestimate how much
they have in common
Reciprocity Effects
Reciprocity: liking those
who show that they like
you
Romantic Ideals
People look for partners
who will act like their
ideal romantic partner

*idealization of partners is good for a relationship*
Perspectives of Love
- Passionate Love: complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings & intense emotion

- Companionate Love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one's own

- Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship

- Commitment: intent to maintain a relationship in spite of difficulties
**Commitment & Companionate love needed for lasting relationships**
Culture & Love

- Western: focus on love & marriage

- Eastern: focus on family approval
for marriage
Evolutionary Perspective
- Certain physical characteristics
are adored throughout the world
1. Facial Symmetry
2. Waist-Hip Size
3. Muscle Build
4. Facial Hair
5. Dress
Evolutionary Perspective Con't
- Cross Cultures ppl do the same things to attract a mate

**What do you do to attract a person?

Mate Poaching: trying to attract another persons mate
Attitudes
Attitudes: positive/negative evaluations of objects or thoughts
Components & Dimensions of Attitudes
- ABC's of Attitude
1. Affective: emotional feelings
2. Behavioral: to act a certain way
3. Cognitive: beliefs
** What is your attitude towards pizza?**

- Dimensions
1. Strength: how strongly you believe
2. Accessibility: how often you think about it
3. Ambivalence: when one is conflicted on attitude
Attitudes & Behavior
- Attitudes do not always impact
behavior b/c behaviors are spontaneous
& dependent on situations
Trying to Change Attitudes
- Trying to persuade people
- Source: person who sends communication
- Message: information being transmitted
- Receiver: receiving message
Source Factors
- high credibility
- expertise
- trustworthiness
- Likability
- Attractiveness
- Similarity
Message Factor
- Two sided arguments better
- concentrate on strong points
- reiterate
- Appealing to fear works
Receiver Factors
- less likely to appeal to
those forewarned

- disconfirmation bias: stronger belief = less likely to change beliefs
Theories of Attitude Formation & Change
Learning Theory
: acquiring attitudes through conditioning
--> if ppl agree = stronger attitude
--> parents impact attitude

Cognitive Dissonance
: Attitude & Behavior do not match
attitude or behavior will change
Effort Justification
: supporting actions

Conformity & Obedience
Conformity: occurs when ppl yeild to real or imagined social pressures
- 90% of people conform
Obedience
Obedience: form of compliance that occurs when ppl follow commands from authority fig.

Milgrim Studies:
1. Method: had subjects issue shocks to a person for wrong answers (up to 300V)

2. Results: 65% of ppl issued full scale
of electrical shocks
- only 5 people stopped prematurely out of 40

- used to explain the events of WWII
Cultural Variations
- Conformity is not unique to America

- More prevelent in collectivist cultures

- Conformity is looked down upon in
America
Situational Power
Zimbardo Experiment: study why prisons
are abusive places

Method: Subjects were similar college
students, Half were guards & half were
prisoners

Outcome: Guards became very abusive,
demeaning, cruel

Social Roles: widely shared expectations
about how ppl in certain positions are to
behave
Group Behavior
Group: consists of two or more individuals
who interact and are interdependent
Bystander Effect: ppl are less likely to provide needed help
when they are in groups than when alone
diffusion of responsibility
pluralistic ignorance
Social Loafing: believe responsibility is spread among all member

Decision Making in Groups
1. Group Polarization: group discussion strengthens a
dominant POV
2. Groupthink : when groups emphasize concurring behavior
to save time & critical thinking
Group Cohesiveness
Elaboration Likelihood Model
: Routes to persuasion
Central Route
: focuses on message
Peripheral Route
: focuses on non message factors
Compliance
Compliance Strategies: ways to get people to adhere to your requests
"Foot-in-the-door": ask for small request & build up

"Door-in-the-face": ask for large request (denied) & then ask for smaller request

Norms of Reciprocity: reciprocating kindness (generosity)
Full transcript