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Language and Power 3
Transcript of Language and Power 3
Power In and Within Discourse
Power in discourse refers to the actual language structures and lexical items used to create power in language use. The power behind discourse looks more at the surroundings of the place where language takes place, taking into account social and ideological reasons behind why someone might assert power over someone else.
A text producer might try to project a certain belief system onto the intended audience through the language they use. Fairclough puts a huge amount of emphasis on the link between language and society so he considers all texts to be underpinned by ideology this is called critical linguistics.
Power in texts can either be instrumental- used to maintain or enforce authority or influential- to persuade and influence others.
There is political, personal and social power.
Adverts work as a projected world to which the reader/consumer is invited to join in or become part of. Fairclough saw advertising as a prime example of ideology at work through building a relationship between the text producer and receiver by constructing a 'product image' that helps position the receiver as a potential consumer.
The first stage of Fairclough's model focuses on 'building relations through personalisation' Synthetic personalisation is a trick or con to ensure the fact that advertising is received en masse, readers feel they are being addressed individually by a warm and personable adresser.
Power in discourse is to do with powerful participants controlling and constraining the contributions of non-powerful participants. There are 3 types of constrains: contents, relations and subjects.
In face to face interactions participants alternate between being the producers and the interpreters but in media discourse there is a sharp divide between the two. In face to face the language used can be adapted based on the feedback received from the co-participant. Media discourse is for a mass audience so they address an ideal subject.
The second stage looks at how adverts work with a reader's ideological background knowledge. Fairclough calls this 'member's resources' which creates an image of the product being advertised. We are encouraged to want to mimic a certain lifestyle.
Fairclough identifies adverts build the consumer. This means placing the text receiver in a desired position in relation to the advertiser and the advertised porduct. This means the receiver is seen as an ideal customer of the product and in agreement with the ideologies it presents.
Advertising Key Words
Building the consumer- A company is identifying the things you should have and things you should be doing.
Members resources- All of the assumed knowledge a member in the target audience has. The advert plays on this.
Synthetic personalisation- When there's a false sense of someone personally talking to you.