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PSYC 4170 Research Proposal - The Impact of Parental Relationship on Procrastination

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Liane Yeung

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of PSYC 4170 Research Proposal - The Impact of Parental Relationship on Procrastination

The Trend of Procrastination Research… (Cont.)
The Trend of Procrastination Research...
The Impact of Parental Relationship on Pr crastination
Pak Lik (Alex), Tsang
Jing Nim Liane, Yeung

PSYCH 4170 H Proposal
The Role of Parents...
Parents continued to be a strong influence at university

Longitudinal effect of parental involvement earlier in high school

Parent’s education level is
positively correlated
with higher parental involvement
Goal f the Study...
To investigate the relations between
parental relationship and procrastination

Add knowledge to existing procrastination researches
Rationale of the Study...
of college students procrastinate
Up to
of university students consider themselves procrastinators

Moderate – Strong negative correlation between procrastination and academic performance

(Ellis & Knaus, 1977)
(Schouwenburg, 2004)
(as cited by Solomon & Rothblum, 1984)
(Beswick et al., 1988; Steel, Brothen, & Wambach, 2001; Tice & Baumeister, 1997; Van Eerde, 2003) (as cited by Moon & Illingworth, 2005)
Parental Authority...
Baumrind’s Typology of Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 1967)

Parental Relationships and Procrastination...
Permissive parents unintentionally
prevent important developmental opportunities

Adolescents reared from permissive family are associated with
low impulse control

In addition, evidences suggested that
procrastination is associated with low impulse control

Interestingly, parent’s education level is also
negatively correlated
with their child’s procrastination behaviors

The Current Study - Alex
The Relationship between
Perceived Parenting Style and Procrastination
on University Students

University students who perceive their parents as permissive parenting style

are more likely to have low impulse control
than students who perceive their parents as authoritative or authoritarian parenting style

positively correlated with procrastination

University students who perceive their parents as permissive parenting style

are more likely to procrastinate
than students who perceive their parents as authoritative or authoritarian parenting style
The Study Design - Alex
~ 120 university students
Sample of convenience
Demographic questions + 3 Psychological tests
~ 30 min.

Psychological Tests - Alex
Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ)
“As I was growing up with my mother/ father
did not allow me to question any decision
that she/ he had made.”
“My mother/ father has always
encouraged verbal give-and-take
whenever I have felt that family rules and restrictions were unreasonable.”
Test-retest reliability: Range from
Internal consistency: Range from
Content validity:
Very good
Criterion-related validity and discriminant-related validity
confirmed some of the aspects in PAQ

Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)

Definition of Impulsivity
Impulsivity is a trait independent of anxiety, in which it includes

Impulsive non-planning
, lacks of considerations for the future,

motor impulsivity
, acting on the spur of the moment,

attentional impulsivity
, the racing thoughts in focusing the task at hand
Sample Items

Test-retest reliability: Spearman’s Rho:
Internal consistency:

Construct validity
Convergent validity:
Highly correlated with similar measures
Known-group validity:
Undergraduates were significantly different than men in a secured correctional facility

Psychological Tests - Alex (Cont.)
Psychological Tests - Alex (C nt.)
General Procrastination Scale (for Student Population)

Definition of Procrastination
“The tendency to postpone that which is necessary to reach some goal
Sample Items

Test-retest reliability:

Internal consistency:

Construct validity
Convergent validity confirmed about the aspects of procrastination behaviors
Results - Alex
The Current Study - Liane
The Relationship of Parent’s Early Involvement in their Child’s Education and Later Procrastination Behaviors at University…
Parents who have higher education
levels are
more likely to actively involve in their child’s education

than those who have a lower education levels
Parents’ involvement in students’ education during high school
is negatively correlated with
students’ procrastination in university
The Study Design - Liane
Questionnaire Study
~ 120
undergraduate students
Sample of convenience
Demographic questions + 2 Psychological tests
~ 20 min.

Psychological Tests - Liane
Parenting Style and Parental Involvement (PSPI)

Definition of Parental Involvement
Parental involvement is defined by 3 specific dimensions: achievement values, interest in school work and involvement in school function
Sample Items

Internal consistency: Range from
0.66 - 0.9
Construct validity:
Very good
Psychological Tests - Liane (Cont.)
General Procrastination Scale (for Student Population)

Definition of Procrastination
“The tendency to postpone that which is necessary to reach some goal
Sample Items

Test-retest reliability:

Internal consistency:

Construct validity
Convergent validity
confirmed about the aspects of procrastination behaviors

Results - Liane
Implications of Our Study...
Add knowledge to the existing procrastination research
Increase parents’ awareness
of their...
Parenting Style
Long-term Influences
Practical Implication
Widely applicable

Advantage vs. Limitati ns...
We are
examining the link between parental relationship and procrastination on
university students
Many items
on our questionnaire
from students
may not truly reflect their parents
Other factors
can also influence procrastination behaviors

of the Psychological Test (PSPI)

Thank you :)
Agliata, A. K., & Renk, K. (2008). College students' adjustment: The role of parent-college student expectation discrepancies and communication reciprocity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 967-982. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9200-8

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behaviour. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75(1), 43-88.

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), 1-103. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/615711210?accountid=15182

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/617935195?accountid=15182

Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist,23(2), 207-217. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/617942967?accountid=15182

Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 110-119. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/618070233?accountid=15182

Charlebois, K. J. (2007). Doing tomorrow what could be done today: An investigation of academic procrastination. (Order No. AAI3265873, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 1-95 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/622035165?accountid=15182. (622035165; 2007-99220-196).

Coccia, C., Darling, C. A., Ream, M., MingCui, & Sathe, S. K. (2012). Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: The paradox of indulgent parenting. Stress and Health, 28(3), 211-221. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/1268691071?accountid=15182

Corkin, D. M., Yu, S. L., & Lindt, S. F. (2011). Comparing active delay and procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 602-606. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.07.005
References… (Cont.)
Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Institute for Rational Living.
Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Psychometric validation of two procrastination inventories for adults: Arousal and avoidance measures.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(2), 97-110. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/618270451?accountid=15182

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1993). Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females. Adolescence, 28(112), 963-970. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/618440503?accountid=15182

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1994). Parental authority and the development of female dysfunctional procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 28(1), 87-100. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/618506738?accountid=15182

Keith, T. Z., Keith, P. B., Quirk, K. J., Sperduto, J., Santillo, S., & Killings, S. (1998). Longitudinal effects of parent involvement on high school grades: Similarities and differences across gender and ethnic groups. Journal of School Psychology, 36(3), 335-363. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619364397?accountid=15182

Kennedy, G. J., & Tuckman, B. W. (2013). An exploration into the influence of academic and social values, procrastination, and perceived school belongingness on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education,doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-013-9220-z

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915-931. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001

Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20(4), 474-495. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/617400283?accountid=15182

References… (Cont.)
Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. Handbook of child psychology, 4, 1-101.

Moon, S. M., & Illingworth, A. J. (2005). Exploring the dynamic nature of procrastination: A latent growth curve analysis of academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(2), 297-309. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.04.009

Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2009). Human development (11th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Patock-Peckham, J., & Morgan-Lopez, A. (2006). College drinking behaviors: Mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(2), 117-125. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.20.2.117

Pychyl, T. A., Coplan, R. J., & Reid, P. A. M. (2002). Parenting and procrastination: Gender differences in the relations between procrastination, parenting style and self-worth in early adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(2), 271-285. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00151-9

Rosário, P., Costa, M., Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Solano, P., & Valle, A. (2009). Academic procrastination: Associations with personal, school, and family variables. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 118-127. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/621972357?accountid=15182

Pychyl, T. A., & Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203-212. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0149-5

References… (Cont.)

Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.12

Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503

Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor Structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768-774.
Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., & Patton, J. H. (2009). Fifty years of the barratt impulsiveness scale: An update and review. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 385-395. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.008

Steel, P., Brothen, T., & Wambach, C. (2001). Procrastination and personality, performance, and mood. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 95–106.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Personality and Individual Differences, 48(8), 926-934. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.025

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1994). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development,65(3), 754-770. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/618525683?accountid=15182

References… (Cont.)
Tavani, C. M., & Losh, S. C. (2003). Motivation, self-confidence, and expectations as predictors of the academic performances among our high school students. Child Study Journal, 33(3), 141-151. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/620618471?accountid=15182

Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454-458. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619221802?accountid=15182

van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1410-1418. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00358-6

Wintre, M. G., & Yaffe, M. (2000). First-year students' adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(1), 9-37. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558400151002

Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
(Georgiou, 1999)(as cited by Tavani & Losh, 2003)
(Keith et al., 1998)
(Youniss & Smoller, 1985)
(as cited by Agliata & Renk, 2008)
(Rosário et al., 2009)
(Pychyl & Flett, 2012; Kennedy & Tuckman, 2013)
(Baumrind, 1991; Steinberg et al., 1994;
Patock-Peckham & Morgan Lopez, 2006)
(as cited by Coccia et al., 2012)
(Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2009)
(Buri, 1991)
(Stanford & Barratt, 1995)
(Stanford & Barratt, 1995)
(Stanford & Barratt, 1995)
(Stanford et al., 2009)
(Stanford et al., 2009)
“I do not do assignments until just before they are to be handed in.”
“When it is time to get up in the morning, I most often get right of bed.”
“I plan tasks carefully.”
“I find it hard to sit still for long periods of time.”
(Lay, 1986)
(Lay, 1986)
(Ferrari, 1989) (as cited by Ferrari, 1992)
(Lay, 1986)
(Lay, 1986; Ferrari, 1992)
“My mother thinks that education is a very important part of adolescence.”
“When I get poor grades, my mother encourages me to try harder.”
(Paulson, 1994)
(Paulson, 1994)
(Lay, 1986)
(Lay, 1986)
“I do not do assignments until just before they are to be handed in.”
“When it is time to get up in the morning, I most often get right of bed.”
(Ferrari, 1989) (as cited by Ferrari, 1992)
(Lay, 1986; Ferrari, 1992)
E.g., task aversiveness, stress, etc.
Growing attention
to procrastination research since 2007

On-going debate
on the exact definition
Include the
negative emotions

Irrational nature
of delay

Adaptive procrastination

(Klassen, Krawchuk & Rajani, 2008; Pychyl & Flett, 2013)
(Corkin, Yu & Lint, 2011)
(Solomon & Rothblum, 1984)

(as cited by Corkin, Yu & Lint, 2011)
(Steel, 2007; Steel, 2010)
(Schraw et al., 2007)
(as cited by Corkin, Yu & Lint, 2011)
(as cited by Corkin, Yu & Lint, 2011)
The link between
parental relationship and procrastination remains largely uninvestigated

have been
directly examine
the relationship between parental authority and procrastination

However, participant population of these researches
All females

All from
middle school or high school

(Pychyl, Coplan, & Reid, 2002)
(i.e., Ferrari & Olivette, 1993; Ferrari & Olivette,

1994; Pychyl, Coplan, & Reid, 2002)
(as cited by Pychyl, Coplan, & Reid, 2002)
(Ferrari & Olivette, 1993; Ferrari & Olivette, 1994)
(Pychyl, Coplan, & Reid, 2002)
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