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Unit 2 Formatting Documents

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by

Ally Rock

on 14 October 2012

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Transcript of Unit 2 Formatting Documents

Unit 2 Formatting Documents The formatting applied to a document can affect how the reader interprets the document, how easily the document is read, and the overall impression of the document
Proper formatting is crucial in creating professional-looking documents Formatting a Document Creating Footnotes and Endnotes Key Concepts setting margins and indents
creating lists
changing line and paragraph spacing
setting tab stops
adding headers, footers, and page numbers
inserting and manipulating graphics
inserting footnotes and endnotes Margins Margins are the white regions around the text on a page.
Margin size affects the amount of text a page can contain Normal Narrow Wide The default margins in Word are 1 inch for the left, right, top, and bottom. Indenting Paragraphs Margin settings apply to an entire document and cannot be different from paragraph to paragraph
INDENTS decrease the width of lines of text in a paragraph .
Indents are often used to set off paragraphs such as a quotation. The default indents are 0 inches, meaning that lines of text extend from the left margin to the right margin
Specify left and right indents to give a paragraph shorter line lengths Setting indents affects only the paragraph that contains the insertion point, or multiple paragraphs selected together Practice: TRAINING--part 1 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab Space Before and After a Paragraph Space between paragraphs makes the text easier to read and helps distinguish where paragraphs begin and end.
The default formatting for a paragraph is no space before (above) the paragraph and 10 points of space after (below) the paragraph The amount of space is measured in points.
Setting space before or after affects only the paragraph that contains the insertion point, or multiple paragraphs selected together Line Spacing The space between lines of text in a paragraph can be changed.
The default formatting for a paragraph is 1.15 lines of space.
Text that is DOUBLE SPACED adds more space between lines of text for notes or comments and can make a document easier to read. Setting line spacing affects only the paragraph that contains the insertion point, or multiple paragraphs selected together Practice: TRAINING--part 2 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab Tabs TABS are used to position text within a line.
Press the TAB key to insert a tab and move any text to the right of the insertion point over to the position of the next tab stop.
Delete a tab by placing the insertion point to the left of the tab and pressing the DELETE key.
Any text is automatically moved to the left to fill the space previously created by the tab Tab Stops A TAB STOP specifies a location within the line of text.
In Word, tab stops are displayed on the ruler above the document.
A set of default tab stops are located at every half inch, but they do not appear on the ruler. Tabs & Tab Stops Tabs can be used to align text into columns of data
New tab stops are created at the appropriate intervals to align data in columns
A tab stop can be set at any position on the ruler within the margins
When a tab stop is set, Word automatically removes the default tab stops to the left
Text is aligned to a tab stop according to the type of tab stop: Each type of tab stop is used in the text shown below. Note the markers on the ruler: Tabs & Tab Stops Tab stops are applied to the paragraph that contains the insertion point or to multiple paragraphs selected together
When the insertion point is moved through the text, the ruler changes to show the tab stops for the current paragraph Setting a Tab Stop Set a tab stop by first clicking the tab selector on the ruler until the type of tab stop to be created is displayed
Click the white area of the ruler above the document to place a tab stop
The tab stop can be dragged to a new location if needed Setting Tab Stops To remove a tab stop, drag its marker downward, off the ruler
Any text that was aligned at a deleted tab stop is then aligned to the next tab stop Tabs Dialog Box The tabs dialog box is useful for changing , editing, and deleting tab stops
Double-click a tab on the ruler to display the tabs dialog box
A tab leader is a character that is repeated to fill the space spanned by a tab. Examples are: ...., ----, ____. Selecting a Vertical Block of Text Data formatted into columns often have different formatting applied to individual columns of data
To select a vertical block of text, hold down the ALT key and drag
Formatting can then be applied to the selected text Practice: TRAINING--part 3 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab Hanging and First Line Indents A paragraph can be formatted so that the first line is indented differently from the rest of the paragraph
When the first line of a paragraph is farther to the left than the rest of the paragraph, it is formatted with a HANGING INDENT
A HANGING INDENT is often used for lists, outlines, or for a bibliography entry Hanging Indents To create a hanging indent, drag the hanging indent marker on the ruler: A hanging indent can also be created using the Paragraph dialog box First Line Indent Another paragraph format is the FIRST LINE INDENT, which indents the first line of the paragraph farther to the right than the rest of the paragraph
A first line indent is often used for text in a published book or paper
To create a first line indent, drag the First Line Indent marker on the ruler Hanging and First Line Indents A first line indent can also be created using options in the Indents and Spacings tab in the Paragraph dialog box
Select first line in the Special list and specify the indent amount in the By box
Setting hanging or first line indents affects only the paragraph that contains the insertion point, or multiple paragraphs selected together Creating Bulleted and Numbered Lists One use for hanging indents is in the creation of BULLETED LISTS In a bulleted list, each item is a separate paragraph formatted with a hanging indent, a character, and a tab
Word automatically formats the paragraph with a hanging indent and adds a bullet character and a tab to each paragraph Alternative Bullets is also found on the mini toolbar Bulleted and Numbered Lists Word automatically formats a paragraph as a list item if a dash (-) or "1." is typed at the beginning of a paragraph Tip Bulleted lists are used when each item is equally important
NUMBERED LISTS show a priority of importance and are used, for example, for the steps in a recipe
To create a numbered list, first select the paragraphs and then click HOME--NUMBERING
Word automatically formats the paragraph with a hanging indent and adds a number followed by a period and a tab to each paragraph Options for Bulleted and Numbered Lists Use HOME--BULLETS and HOME--NUMBERING to display options for formatting lists. Other bullet characters or different numbering formats can be selected Increasing the Indent Click HOME--INCREASE INDENT to increase the indent of bulleted or numbered items
To remove the bullets or numbering list formats, select the formatted paragraphs and then click HOME--BULLETS or HOME--NUMBERING again Practice: TRAINING--part 4 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab Headers and Footers A HEADER is an area at the top of a page and a FOOTER is an area at the bottom of the page A header or footer is typically used to include the page number, file name, author's name, and the date on each page Headers and Footers To create a header or footer, click INSERT--HEADER or INSERT--FOOTER
A gallery of built-in designs is displayed
Click a built-in design and the document text dims, the header or footer is added, and the DESIGN tab is displayed on the ribbon Type text to replace the blue placeholder and then format the text as needed.
Use the Design tab to further customize the header or footer Tip: Double-click in the header or footer area to make it active again and allow for editing Adding Times, Dates, and Page Numbers Tip: To add a blank header or footer, click INSERT--EDIT HEADER or INSERT--EDIT FOOTER Page numbers are helpful in documents that have more than one page
To add the page number at the insertion point in an existing header or footer, click INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--CURRENT POSITION
If a header or footer has not yet been created, click:
INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--TOP OF PAGE to create a header with a page number. Any existing header is replaced
INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--BOTTOM OF PAGE to create a footer with a page number. Any existing footer is replaced
INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--PAGE MARGINS to add a page number in the left or right margins. To edit a page number in the margins make the header active Adding Page Numbers The page number can then be formatted as needed
When the document is printed, the appropriate page number will print on each page
To change the numbering style, click INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--FORMAT PAGE NUMBERS
To delete a page number, click INSERT--PAGE NUMBER--REMOVE PAGE NUMBERS or select the page number and press the Delete key Adding Times and Dates It is easier to keep track of document revisions when printouts include the date and time they were printed
To add a date or time at the insertion point, click INSERT--DATE & TIME which displays the dialog box
Select a format and then OK to insert the date or time
Select the UPDATE AUTOMATICALLY check box in the dialog box to have the date and time automatically updated when a document is printed or opened
To delete the date or time, select it and press the Delete key Adding Times and Dates To update the date and time in the document, move the pointer over the date or time until UPDATE appears, then click UPDATE
To change the format of the date or time, right-click the date or time and then select EDIT FIELD from the menu Adding Graphics Graphics can be used to make a document more interesting and informative
Graphics in digital format come from various sources, including scanned artwork, digital camera pictures, screen captures, and illustration software
Click INSERT--PICTURE to display the Insert Picture dialog box with a list of graphic files Adding Graphics CLIP ART are files of general-purpose graphics created by an artist using illustration software
Click INSERT--CLIP ART to display a task pane for finding clip art
Type a word or phrase in the Search for box and select Go to find all clip art that have the keywords in their description Adding Graphics To narrow a search, use the "Results should be" drop down box Tip: Some of the most commonly used graphic file formats are: GIF
JPG
PNG
TIF
CGM
FPX
MIX
PCD
PCT Adding Graphics Once placed in a document, a graphic may need to be sized
Click a graphic to select it and display handles
Point to a corner handle, which changes the point to an arrow and then drag to size the graphic Adding Graphics To move a graphic, drag the center of it (not a handle)
Wherever a graphic is moved, text moves to make room
Cut, Copy, and Paste on the Home tab can be used to create copies or move a selected graphic
Press the Delete key to delete the selected graphic
Click anywhere in the document other than on the graphic to remove the handles Adding Graphics When a graphic is inserted, the Format tab is added to the Ribbon and is used to change the look of a selected graphic. Adding Graphics Recolor changes the colors
Brightness adjusts the relative lightness
Contrast adjusts the difference between the lightest and darkest areas
Picture Shape changes the shape
Picture Border adds a border
Picture Effects adds effects such as bevels and shadows
Picture Styles apply several picture formats in one click
Crop trims away areas of the graphic that are not needed
Reset picture removes the formatting Positioning a Graphic A graphic inserted into a document is placed at the insertion point
Formats can then be applied to the paragraph and will affect the position of the graphic Positioning a Graphic To move a selected graphic around the page freely, click FORMAT--TEXT WRAPPING--SQUARE
The text on the page will move, or wrap, around the graphic as it is moved around the page
Other options in FORMAT--TEXT WRAPPING allow for other effects such as text showing over the graphic or the graphic covering the text
As text is edited, the graphic will remain with the text it is near Positioning a Graphic To quickly line up a selected graphic in a specific position on a page, click FORMAT--POSITION and select a position
As text is edited, text will flow and the graphic will remain in the position relative to the page Practice: TRAINING--part 5 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab Pagination PAGINATION is how a document is divided into pages
Word automatically determines how much text will fit on a page based on the amount of text and the document formatting Pagination As a document is edited, Word automatically updates the pagination
To change pagination, insert a PAGE BREAK
Inserting a page break moves the text after the insertion point to the next page
To insert a break, press CTRL-Enter or click INSERT--PAGE BREAK Pagination To delete a page break, place the insertion point to the left of the page break and press the Delete key
The document re paginates and text from the next page moves up to fill the current page Research papers and reports often include FOOTNOTES to cite sources
To add a footnote, place the insertion point in the text where the footnote number should appear and click REFERENCES--INSERT FOOTNOTE
A number is placed in the text and the insertion point is moved to a new footnote at the end of the document Note: a separator line indicates the footnotes Creating Footnotes and Endnotes In a new footnote, the insertion point is placed to the right of the footnote number at the bottom of the page so that the footnote information can be typed and formatting applied
To change the format of the numbers, click the Footnotes group Dialog box Launcher to display the Footnote and Endnote dialog box
Options in the dialog box affect the number format, the starting number, and the location of the footnotes Creating Footnotes and Endnotes Word sequentially numbers footnotes, and automatically renumbers footnotes when one is moved, inserted, copied, or deleted
To delete a footnote, delete the footnote number in the text, which automatically removes the reference from the bottom of the page TIPS: The standard format for footnotes is a 0.5 inch first line indent and a blank line above each footnote
Double-click the footnote number in the text to move the insertion point to to footnote at the bottom of the page Inserting Endnotes ENDNOTES appear on the last page of a document and are a common method of references for a research paper
To create an endnote, place the insertion point in the text where the endnote number should appear and click REFERENCES--INSERT ENDNOTE
A number is placed in the text and the insertion point is moved to the end of the document
Change the format of the numbers in the Footnote and Endnote dialog box Practice: TRAINING--part 6 of 6 This practice can be found at www.msrocksclassroomblog.com under the assignments/handouts tab
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