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Japanese Occupation in the Philippines
Transcript of Japanese Occupation in the Philippines
was a place for expansion, a source of raw materials and a market for it’s products.
Contemplated a peaceful and largely economic penetration of the Philippines.
- Japan advocated a take over of the Philippines while it annexed
Took over some German possessions as part of its mandate under the League of Nations.
Road to War
First Filipino-Japanese Collaboration
Thank You for listening!
World War II
lasted from 1939 to 1945
The Great Powers formed 2 opposing military alliances : the Allies and the Axis.
It began with the Germans invading Poland on September 1, 1939.
July 7, 1937; Sino-Japanese War
League of Nations
and provoked an undeclared war with China. It massacred inhabitants of
, event also known as the “
Rape of Nanking
It allied itself to the Axis powers
The United States imposed an
on oil and scrap metal exports to Japan.
- a career diplomat, negotiated peace and understanding with the US while Japan secretly planned attack on
While preparing for independence under Tydings- McDuffie Act, the Philippine Army was re-established because the Americans knew that Japan will invade soon.
Preparation for Independence and War
- Pres. Quezon secretly went to Japan and discussed with the Japanese the prospect of
-He also considered placing the country under
(both opposed by MacArthur and other American officials.)
Due to growing differences between Quezon and MacArthur, MacArthur asked Pres. Roosevelt to recall him to US service.
Washington and MacArthur had different plans for the Philippines.
The Americans allowed
about Japan to circulate the country to assure Filipinos that everything is secure.
Pres. Quezon summoned
Gen. Douglas MacArthur
, retired chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the US to prepare the Philippines militarily. He assumed the rank
of the Philippine Army.
Training of citizen soldiers was undertaken with the implementation of
PMT - Professional Military Training
ROTC - Reserve Officer Training Corps
with lack of adequate equipment and ammunition.
Filipinos made their own head gears from coconut fibers called
. Belts were made from
instead of leather. Shoes were manufactured locally by
December 7, 1941 (
, Phil time) - Japan’s naval bombers attacked American naval in Pearl Harbor and other military installations in Hawaii
The attack left 2,897 dead, and 8 battleships and a host of other naval vessels sank or heavily damaged.
Hong Kong, Guam, Wake Island, Midway, and the Philippines were also attacked.
With an open conflict, Pres. Roosevelt asked the US Congress for a declaration of a
state of war
with Japan. The following day, Japan’s Axis allies declared war on the United States.
The first point of attack in the Philippines was the airport at
where Japanese commandos captured the airstrip on the early morning hours of
took place at Baguio, Tarlac, and the naval and air installations at Subic, Zambales and Clark, Pampanga. In the south,
received its first air raid on the same day.
Lt. Gen. Masaharu Homma, commander of chief of the Japanese forces
The Japanese planned to move swiftly and win victories before the United States could respond with force.
The Japanese landing at
Lt. Gen. Masaharu Homma
, commander of chief of the Japanese forces in the Philippines.
Manila was attacked as early as
December 9, 1941
Remaining American air crafts were evacuated to Australia.
US Asiatic Fleet moved to the Dutch East Indies.
The US’s withdrawal left the Philippines defenseless.
, Pres. Quezon and VPres. Osmeña were evacuated to
. Left in charge of Manila was Executive Secretary
Jose B. Vargas
and Justice Secretary
Jose P. Laurel
. Jose B. Vargas was designated by Quezon as the Mayor of Greater Manila.
To spare Manila from destruction, MacArthur declared it an open city on December 26. despite this, the attacks continued.
USAFFE (United States Armed Forces in the Far East)retreated to Bataan and waited for reinforcements from the US
the first Japanese contingent entered Manila and were cheered on as liberators.
Lt. Gen. Homma declared the end of American rule in the Philippines and imposed martial law on all occupied areas.
was formed on
January 26, 1942
with Vargas as chairman.
the country was under Filipino Government
the Filipino and American forces still fighting the Japanese and to
drive a wedge
between Quezon and the Americans.
was under Japanese supervision
Philippine Executive Commission
January 2, 1942
November 19, 1942
, PEC abolished all political parties by Proclamation No. 109 creating the “Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas” or better known as
USAFFE forces in Bataan continued to oppose the Japanese. They withstood the attacks of the enemy.
delayed Gen. Homma’s timetable. The expected capture of the Philippines in
There was also resistance in Panay and Mindanao.
Filipino and American soldiers started to suffer from lack of rest and adequate food.
Inequality reigned as the American soldiers gained more than that of the Filipinos.
Pres. Quezon was aghast at the American policy and threatened to negotiate a truce with the Japanese to save the Filipinos at Bataan but was prevented by Gen. MacArthur.
- Quezon and his family were evacuated from Corregidor to Australia.
-He left Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos as acting President in case he and VPres. Osmeña were killed or captured by the Japanese.
Quezon was later brought to the US where he set up a government in exile in Washington.
Quezon never came back to the Philippines alive. He died at a sanatorium in Lake Saranac, New York on August 1, 1944 from
Gen. MacArthur was too valuable to be captured or killed so Pres. Roosevelt ordered him to leave the Philippines. He and his family left Bataan and went to Mindanao where he was taken by plane to Australia.
I came through and I shall return
– District And Neighborhood Associations. Organized by Chairman Vargas on August 8, 1942. provides means of self-protection to the local residents.
– Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon. March 29, 1942, with leader Luis Taruc, Juan Feleo, and Castro Alejandrino.
Chinese guerillas, Wha Chi. Also known as the 48th squadron after China’s 4th and 8th Route Army.
Hunters ROTC guerillas
– founded by Miguel Ver and Eleuterio Adevoso, both cadets of the PMA. Responsible for attempted assassination of Laurel in Wack-Wack, Mandaluyong in 1943.
Markings Guerillas by Marcos Agustin.
USAFIP, LGAF, USAFIP-NL
Death March and Surrender
Culture and Education under the Japanese
Part of the Japanese objectives was to erase vestiges of American imperialism in the country.
Taft Avenue was renamed “
” while Jones Bridge was named “
They sought to promote Oriental culture.
Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
– cultural and economic unity of the East Asian race.
was introduced as one of the subjects in schools.
History of United States and Western Europe were sidetracked.
After the inauguration of the Philippine Republic, the Tagalog, Philippine History, and civic values were emphasized in the education of Filipino students.
Tagalog literature blossomed and authors like Lupe K. Santos and Arturo Tolentino made themselves felt in publications like Liwayway.
Filipino theatre resurfaced. More popular were the bodabil or stage shows.
October 14, 1943, Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic is inaugurated with Jose P. Laurel as President.
Homma launched a fresh offensive on the birthday of Emperor Hirohito, April 8, 1942.
On April 9, 1942, Gen. Edward King, commander of USAFFE in Bataan, surrendered his entire Bataan command to the Japanese.
They surrendered to a smaller enemy force. 76,ooo troops laid down their weapons to a force not more than 54,ooo Japanese which the Japanese did not expect.
A few thousand were loaded on trucks to the prison in Capas, Tarlac. The rest endured the grueling trek called the Death March.
The march lasted from April 10-15.
Of the 76,ooo USAFFE prisoners, only 56,ooo arrived at the Camp O’Donnell.
Only 33,ooo were left when the Filipino prisoners were released in June.
May 6, Corregidor, the last bastion of Filipino and American-organized resistance falls to the Japanese.
Return of MacArthur
October 20, 1944, two and a half years after the promise or return.
Returned with an enormous invasion force and the largest assemblage of naval vessels in the history of mankind.
For MacArthur, the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese was the culmination of the war.
formerly known as the Second Battle of the Philippine Sea
the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.
fought in waters near the Philippine islands of Leyte, Samar and Luzon from 23–26 October 1944, between combined US and Australian forces and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf consisted of four separate engagements between the opposing forces:
Battle of Sibuyan Sea
Battle of Surigao Strait
Battle of Cape Engaño
Battle of Samar
Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita
most famous for conquering the British Colonies of Malaya and Singapore
he assumed the command of the Fourteenth Area Army to defend the Philippines on 10 October 1994.
Yamashita commanded approximately 262,000 troops in three defensive groups:
Shobo Group – largest group, defended northern Luzon.
Kembu Group – smallest group, defended Bataan and western shores.
Shimbu Group – defended Manila and southern shores.
Gave orders to Rear Admiral Iwabuchi to withdraw from Manila without combat but was disobeyed which then resulted to the Battle of Manila that lasted from Feb 4 to Mar 3. Manila Massacre.
The Japanese were in a desperate situation and by March, 1945, the capital city of Manila was in allied hands.
Yamashita used delaying tactics to maintain his army in Kiangan (part of the Ifugao Province).
Yamashita surrendered in the presence of Generals Jonathan Wainwright and Arthur Percival, both of whom had been prisoners of war in Manchuria.
General MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz finally planned a joint operation: the invasion of the Philippines.
The invasion would see the largest sea battle in history take place in Leyte Gulf.
Admiral Chester Nimitz - leading the island offensive in the Central Pacific.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Surrender of Japan
September 2, 1945.
By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent.
Japan was persuading the Soviet to mediate peace that is favorable to Japan while the Soviet was secretly planning to attack Japan.
August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima.
August 8, 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.
August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Later that same day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb, this time on the city of Nagasaki.
Emperor Hirohito to intervene and order the Big Six to accept the terms for ending the war that the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration.
The surrender ceremony was held on September 2, aboard the United States Navy battleship USS Missouri (BB-63), at which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, thereby ending the hostilities in World War II.
The state of war between Japan and the Allies formally ended when the Treaty of San Francisco came into force on April 28, 1952.
Four more years passed before Japan and the Soviet Union signed the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, which formally brought an end to their state of war.