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Feminism & Poverty

HSP 305- Western Washington University
by

Stephanie Hansen

on 10 October 2014

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Transcript of Feminism & Poverty

Facts about Domestic Violence
What is it?
United Nations Development Program
1997 Human Development Report
Feminism and Domestic Violence
INTERSECTIONALITY.
The term
intersectionality
was coined by an American Professor named Kimberle Crenshaw (pictured on right) in 1989. The concept already existed for many decades, but Crenshaw simply put a name to it. Although the idea wasn't new, it didn't seem to become a popular debate topic until the last 10 years or so. The term was widely adopted because it "managed to encompass in a single word the simultaneous experience of the multiple oppressions faced by Black women."
Summer 2014
Equal Educational Attainment as it Relates to Poverty in Women
Heather Lewis HSP 305
Western Washington University
Group Project - July 2014
HSP 305: Group Project
Terms of importance
Feminism! Feminism! Read All About It!
How Can We Reduce Gender Inequality?
Gender Inequality
: Disparity in status, power & prestige between people who identify as women, and men.
Feminism Poverty
Gender Equality and Education
National family health surveys point out that everyone suffers from the effects of educational inequalities on some level.

A survey in 2006 concluded “
economic development
cannot be sustained with a population that has merely completed primary school; it needs a dependable supply of highly educated and skilled
human capital
for which a
high level of educational attainment of both women and men is necessary
.” (Deonar, M., p. 20).

How do gender and education relate to poverty?
Who is effected by educational inequality?
How might we foster gender equality in our educational systems and limit barriers related to poverty?
According to Population Services Organization:
“United Nations Women's focus prioritizes" :

*Increasing women's security - especially in relation to sexual violence
*Investing in women's empowerment
*"Securing women's equal participation in all peacekeeping, peace building and post-conflict reconstruction efforts"(Lakshmi, P., 2010).

The UN claims that "targeting women and girls for education, employment and health care can create a
multiplier effect
– on the well-being and productivity of families, communities and societies in general" (Lakshmi, P., 2010).


What is important to know about gender
equality and education as it relates to poverty?
Image credit: googleimages.com
Individuals
Families
Communities
Societies
Populations

In India, from 1965 to 2009, contraceptive usage more than tripled and fertility rates more than halved. A good part of the fertility decline occurred in the southern states, which have higher rates of literacy and education, along with greater equality for women" (Lakshmi, P., 2011).
According to Population Services Organization, in order to create change in the area of gender equality and education we must :

*Tap into the power of
community
*Continue to build on individual and family strengths (Deonar, M.)

*"Gender Inequalities are both a cause and effect of population growth" (Lakshmi, P., 2010).

*"Women who have been denied legal, social, and economic rights such as education are often forced to rely on caregiving for survival" (Lakshmi, P., 2010).

*Rapidly growing communities mean higher fertility rates and increased need for resources such as education attainment (Lakshmi, P., 2010).

*Gender inequality creates a cycle of poverty for all.


"No society Treats its women as well as its men" -
United Nations often cite the statistics that "women do 2/3 of the worlds work, receive 10 percent of the world's income and own 1 percent of the means of production" (Edmonds, M., )

In other countries like Saudi Arabia, in addition to educational restrictions, women are not allowed certain modes of mobility that receiving an education might require such as leaving the house or driving a car ( Edmonds, M.).

Nordic Countries such as Sweden, Norway and Iceland are said to have the smallest gender gaps (Edmonds, M.).

Women Make up over 2/3 of the worlds illiterate adults
"Numerous studies have shown that educating girls is a key factor in eliminating poverty and aiding development "(Edmonds, M.).
Education and Politics are Connected

A recent study showed that Women in leadership positions in "Bolivia, Cameroon and Malaysia were most likely to invest in family and community needs like education in an effort to eradicate poverty however men were more likely to invest in military forces" (Edmonds, M.).
Cultural Competence
Gender Inequality in Education:
*Fuels population growth
*Creates barriers to education
*Creates barriers to employment
*Increases need for social services
*Increases competition for natural resources
*Limits economic development
*Contributes to personal and professional interpersonal conflicts

What are the facts?
1948 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which made lawful the rights of all people to equal rights and freedoms however reporting continues to show countries are still "falling short" to that promise (Edmonds, M.)
Women who are educated tend to earn higher salaries and are proven more likely to invest their time and money into their own families in an effort to support future educated generations (Edmonds, M. ).
What do we know?
Bibliography

Community Anti-Violence Alliance, Inc (n.d.). "50 Reasons Women Dont Leave". Retrieved from http://www.ncdsv.org/images/50_Reasons_Women_Dont_Leave.pdf

Deonar, Mumbai. "Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in India. National Family Health Survey India." International Institute for Population Sciences 400.088 (2006): 19 -89. Print.

Domestic Violence Resources - Fact Sheet - Feminist Majority Foundation. (n.d.). Domestic Violence Resources - Fact Sheet - Feminist Majority Foundation</i>. Retrieved from http://www.feminist.org/911/crisis_facts.html#notes

Edmonds, M. (n.d.) 10 Examples of Gender Inequality Around the World : Discovery Channel. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/examples-gender-inequality-around-world.htm

Gender Equality. (n.d.). Empowering Women: Promoting Gender Equality: UNFPA. Retrieved , from http://www.unfpa.org/gender/empowerment.html

Gender Equality. (2014, January 1). InterAction. Retrieved , from http://www.interaction.org/work/gender-equality

Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment. (2014, July 14). U.S. Agency for International Development. Retrieved , from http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment

Lakshmi, P. (2011). The Domino Effect: Gender Equality. (2010). Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.psi.org/impact-magazine/2011/09/domino-effect-gender-equality

MacDonald, T., & Schaik, N. V. (2013, October 21). Prevention means knowing warning signs of domestic violence. Retrieved from http://www.schweinfurt.army.mil/news/archives/newspage_3597.htm#.U9s2rE10zIV

Manitoba Justice. (n.d.). <i>Manitoba Department of Justice</i>. Retrieved from http://www.gov.mb.ca/cgi-bin/print_hit_bold.pl/justice/domestic/cycleofviolence/index.html

Smith, Sharon. (2013-2014) International Socialist Review, Issue #93; Black feminism and intersectionality. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from http://isreview.org/issue/91/black-feminism-and-intersectionality

Vidal, Ava. (2014). 'Intersectional feminism'. What the hell is it? (And why you should care). Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/10572435/Intersectional-feminism.-What-the-hell-is-it-And-why-you-should-care.html

Wani, S. V. (2012, July 23). ‘Gender inequality can be reduced by giving equal opportunities’. - Indian Express. Retrieved , from http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/-gender-inequality-can-be-reduced-by-giving-equal-opportunities-/978115/


(Lakshmi, P., 2010).
The textbook definition states:
"The view that women experience oppression in varying configurations and in varying degrees of intensity. Cultural patterns of oppression are not only interrelated, but are bound together and influenced by the intersectional systems of society. Examples of this include race, gender, class, ability, and ethnicity." (Vidal, 2014).
Intersectional feminism
is meant to recognize the idea/fact that certain groups of people have multi-layered facets in life that they have to deal with. Two examples being racism and sexism. To simply state it,
there is no "one size fits all" in feminism.
Crenshaw argues that women (more specifically, Black) are discriminated against in ways that often do not fit the criteria among the categories of either “racism”
or
“sexism”— but rather a combination of
both
.
Intersectionality

the theory of how
different types of
discrimination interact
"
Not every feminist is white, middle class, cis-gendered and able bodied.
" Feminists come in all shapes, sizes, colors and statuses and that needs to be recognized in order for the feminist movement to continue. The concept of Feminism is "woman power" and equal rights -- and women can't continue to move forward without sticking together and supporting one another. And I think that's what Kimberle Crenshaw has been fighting for.
Feminism:
The set of beliefs or ideas that belong to the broad social movement to eradicate sexism & gendered social roles, while achieving equality for women.
Patriarchy:
A social system which depends on male dominance & subordination of women through gendered socialization, economic oppression, political silence/erasure, & male privilege.
Equality:
The idea that no individual should be less equal in opportunity or in human rights than any other.
Did you know?
SHOCKING FACTS!
White American males consitute only 33% of the US population, yet they occupy:
80% of the House of Representatives.
80-85% of the Senate
97.7% of US Presidents
92% of Forbes 400 executive CEO-level positions
99.9% of athletic team owners
80% of tenured positions in higher education
90% of Public School Superintendents


Credit: globalcitizen.org
(Sue, D. & Rivera D. (2010). Microagressions: More than Just Race. psychologytoday.com
Credit: 2012 American Community Survey
For more than a decade, women have earned roughly 77 cents on the dollar that men have, when comparing full-time employed workers.

Nevada women have the highest in terms of paycheck equality: .85 cents

Wyoming women have the lowest: .64 cents.
Casserly, M. (2013). The Geography Of The Gender Pay Gap: Women's Earnings By State. Forbes Magazine Online.
How women can benefit from Feminism
Please note that while this infograph is reflective of the American labor force, gender is implied for each (even though the stats are based off of workers, not genders). In all cases but one, the stick figure is either non-sexed and therefore implicitly male (e.g., the newspaper reader and the disabled) or explicitly male (the business suited full time employees, the moustachioed retiree). The one exception is for the stay-at-home parent--a stick figure with a dress on (explicitly female). Yes, it can be agreed that statistically, 97% of stay-at-home parents are female. BUT 50% of the American work force is also female--a figure that is not represented or could be concluded from the images displayed in this image. This point is significant as it shows the stereotyping and expectations of gender roles enforced in a patriarchal society.

Credits: Image created by Bloomberg Business Week.
Source: Wade, L. (2013). Who works? Stick Figures, gender, & illustrating the workforce. Sociological Images. thesocietypages.org
Women are more likely than men to be in poverty


The following numbers are based off of data collected for the year 2009:
Black & Hispanic females are more likely to be poor than non-Hispanic White females. Slightly more than one-quarter of both Black females (28 %) and Hispanic females (27 %) had family incomes below the poverty line, compared to 11 % of White, non-Hispanic females.
28% of working women who were unmarried with children had incomes below the poverty level, compared to a poverty rate of 8% among all female workers and 6% among male workers.
11% of women of age 65 or older were poor, compared to 7% of men age 65 or older.
While the gender pay gap is clear, this can not be attributed to lack of working nor lack of college education. As 50% of the labor workforce is women, and:

*Women age 25-34 are now more likely than men of the same age group to have attained a college degree.

*Women earned about 57% of all college degrees conferred in 2007-2008.

*Women account for the majority of undergraduate enrollment across all race/ethnic groups.

*More women than men have received a graduate education.

*Women account for the majority of graduate enrollment across all race/ethnic groups.

Thus, women are motivated, educated, qualified and capable. The largest disparity comes into play when accounting for income.



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Division. (2011). Women in America: Indicators of social & economic well-being. whitehouse.gov
Gender roles:
A set of social & behavioral norms that within a specific culture are widely considered to be socially appropriate (or alternately inappropriate) for individuals of a specific sex.
How men can benefit from Feminism
Freedom to share and convey feelings without fear of being made fun of for "acting like a girl" or "being a pussy".

Reproductive control benefits everyone involved in heterosexual relationships- not just women.

Through feminism, men are liberated from stereoptypes, too.

Women's skills are required to raised children... But men have them too. Feminism empowers
all sexes
to
choose
which skills they utilize.

Causes of death linked to masculine roles such as violence, speeding, and tension-related disease could be eliminated (and male life expectancy could rise as a result).

Ability to live without feeling the need to fulfill expectations linked to femininity vs masculinity and inferiority vs superiority.

Greater academic success. (Studies indicate that boys with an entitled sense of power based on gender are less likely to do well academically or try as hard in school.)

No sole breadwinner workhorse expectations.

More time as fathers.

Freedom to ask for help or support without embarrassment or
fear of being called a "sissy", "wimp", or told to "man up".
Feminism is actually “man-loving” in that traditional masculinity also harms men and feminists promote change in both men’s and women’s roles.
For example, studies in the United States find that traditionally masculine men are more likely to be hostile, violent, psychologically distressed, and prone to substance abuse (and less likely to seek help for these issues). Aspects of traditional masculinity are not a good fit for many men. Some aspects are unhealthy (like the emphasis on emotional control, aggression, and risk-taking), and some masculine ideals (like physical size and strength, high earnings, etc.) are out of reach for many men.
No life limitations due to simply being a woman.

Freedom to engage in sexual activity without fear of being called "slut", "whore", or "skank" as a result of not conforming to sexual double standards.

Improvement of safety in risk of violence and sexual assault.

Choice of expression in clothing without fear of being called "slut", "whore", or "skank" as a result of not conforming to wardrobe double standards.

Release of expectation to be submissive and subservient.

No sole household cleaning, cooking and child-rearing expectations.

Validation of self-worth is not found in appearance, weight, finding a husband, attractiveness, sexual behavior, or ability to keep a clean house.

Equal opportunity when it comes to career, wages/income, sports, choice, education, bodily autonomy and reproductive health.



Hard to believe but.......

* Domestic violence is both a national and a worldwide crisis. According to a 2000 UNICEF study, 20-50% of the female population of the world will become the victims of domestic violence. ( Kapoor, June, 2000).

* Within the United States, 22.1% of women will experience violence by an intimate partner sometime during her lifetime. According to the National Violence Against Women Survey, 17.6% of women will be raped during her lifetime. (Tjaden & Thoennes ,1999).

* Although men are more likely to be victims of violent crime overall, a recent study by the U.S. Department of Justice reports that "intimate partner violence is primarily a crime against women." ( Rennison, 2001)

* Of those victimized by an intimate partner, 85% are women and 15% are men. In other words, women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to be victimized by an intimate partner (Greenfeld et al.,1998).

*The vast majority of domestic assaults are committed by men. Even when men are victimized, 10% are assaulted by another man. In contrast, only 2% of women who are victimized are assaulted by another woman. ( Rennison, 2001)


* Approximately 40-50% of female victims are physically injured when assaulted by their intimate partner accounting for over 110,000 visits to the hospital emergency room each year. ( Rand & Strom ,1997).

* Only about 1 in 5 of domestic violence victims with physical injuries seek professional medical treatment. (Greenfeld et al.,1998).

* Women are far more likely than men to be murdered by an intimate partner. Of those murdered by their intimate partner, 74% are women and 26% are men.2 In other words, nearly 3 out of 4 of the murders committed by intimate partners have a female victim. ( Rennison, 2001)



Feminism is not a dirty word. It does not mean you hate men, it does not mean you hate girls that have nice legs and a tan, and it does not mean you are a bitch or a dyke, it means that you believe in equality.
-Kate Nash
Women comprise half of the U.S. population, but there are only 81 women in the 435 seat House of Representatives, and 20 women in the 100 seat Senate.
No state has ever achieved federal or state judgeship's gender equality. Women held only 23% of federal judgeships and only 27% of state judgeships in 2010. In its 220 year history, only 4 women justices have served on the Supreme Court (with today being an all time high of 3 out of 9 justices).
Female-headed families have the lowest family earnings among all family types.

61% of all women are working or looking for work--a figure that hasn't changed since 2000. This is versus a rate of 75% for men, and that percentage has been declining since the 1950's.

70% of mothers with children under the age of 18 are part of the labor force; 76% of unmarried mothers with children under the age of 18 are part of the labor force.

Among full-time wage and salary workers, women's weekly earnings as a percent of men's is 80%.

More women than men work part time, while women & men both have equal access to accessible work schedules.

In families where both husband & wife are employed, employed wives spend more time in household activities than do employed husbands.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Division. (2011). Women in America: Indicators of social & economic well-being. whitehouse.gov
Privilege:
The idea that in human society, some groups benefit from unearned, largely unacknowledged advantages that increase their power relative to that of others, thereby perpetuating social inequality.
Photo Credit: Center For American Progress
What could women buy with the lost wages of the pay gap?


*Median annual pay for full-time working women in 2010 is $36,931.
*Median annual pay for full-time working men in 2010 is $47,715.
*This results in a median annual pay gap of $10,784.

Examples displayed in the infographics to the right (lifetime) and left (annually).


Percentage of women vs men working as CEO's, Start-up Founders, Contributors to Wikipedia, Voting power on the World's key interest rates, top 100 billionaires, Senior Management in all industries, Congressional Seats, and Leadership roles in the Clergy (also broken down by sect).
Photo credit: JESS3; jess3.com
"[Intersectionality] means understanding that different kinds of oppression are interlinked, and that one can't liberate only one group without the others. It means acknowledging kyriarchy and intersectionality - the fact that along different axes, we're all both oppressed and oppressors, privileged and disprivileged." -Shiri Eisner
I thought we were talking about Poverty, not Patriarchy?
There are relationships to be explored between all possible contributors to poverty. Each societal problem tells its own tale, with the same theme. And each tale is woven in to the other, creating an intricate system which only perpetuates the cycle.
Poverty is related to gender inequality.

Gender inequality is related to domestic violence.

Income is related to educational opportunity.

Poverty is related to educational opportunity.

Domestic Violence is related to poverty.
Kyriarchy:
A social system built around domination, oppression, & submission. Also known as interconnected, interacting, and self-extending systems of domination and oppression.
Test Your Knowledge about Domestic Violence
http://www.womenagainstabuse.org/index.php/learn-about-abuse/test-your-knowledge
How do we stop domestic violence?

Understanding the cycle of violence is the first step towards breaking it.

Most of the time, abuse doesn't occur continually, but rather in a cycle. The cycle of violence is made up of four phases:

Build-up:
◾Some stress (ex: job, money or bills) begins this part of the cycle. The stress causes the abuser to feel powerless. The abuser chooses to act out toward a spouse or partner through name calling, insults, accusations.
◾As the tension builds, the victim tries to calm the abuser and anticipate his/her every need.
◾The tension becomes unbearable...like "walking on eggshell".

Act Out:
◾The tension that builds up leads to severe verbal abuse, violent physical or sexual attack.
◾It may happen once or again and again.
◾Abuse is always intentional and never an accident. The motivation for any type of abuse is to hurt, humiliate or have power and control over an individual.

Rationalize/Justify:
◾In this phase the abuser uses defense mechanisms such as blaming others or minimizing violence.
◾Defence mechanisms are used to turn blame away from the abuser and make him/her feel better. The abuser defines the abuse and interprets how things "really are". The abused partner begins to believe this interpretation.

Pretend Normal:
◾Once the rationalize/justify step is in place, both partners try to make the relationship continue in a normal way by pretending that everything is all right. However, the cycle of abuse will continue, if the problems in the relationship are not addressed.

Domestic Violence as it Relates to Poverty in Women
Sladjana Nikolic HSP 305
Western Washington University
Group Project - July 2014
Why women don't leave?
Feminist - Patrick Stewart on domestic violence
Organizations focused on Reducing Inequality
UN Women Watch
Feminist Majority Foundation
Equality Now
Association for Women's Rights in Development
Vital Voices
The United Nations Development Fund for Women
Planned Parenthood
United States Agency for International Development
World Health Organization
Health
Political/Economic Empowerment
Thank You for Viewing

Project by:
Jessica Chapman
Melanie Crowther
Stephanie Hansen
Heather Lewis
Sladjana Nikolic

HSP 305
Summer Quarter 2015
Our media needs to stop perpetuating gender inequality i.e. presenting men and women as equals
Higher levels of women's education
Stopping sex identification abortions
More scholarships to girls
Awareness for parents about stereotyping
More social integration for all gender identities
"Investing in women’s and girls’ health, education, economic roles and political participation has proven successful toward reducing global poverty and improving the lives of the world’s poorest individuals" (Interaction, 2014)
Women having the ability to control their own fertility
Provide information, services and conditions to help women protect their reproduction health
Equal access to medical care
Encourage family planning
Encourage contraceptive use to prevent STDs
Education about reproductive health issues, including maternal mortality and morbidity, especially for women in developing countries
Women encouraged to participate in politics
Laws set in place for employers to be required to pay men and women the same wages for the same work
Laws enforced for equality in employment
More access to property ownership
Laws against domestic violence always enforced on behalf of women.
Equal distribution of men and women across job types
Removal of 'glass ceiling in workplaces by having women in positions of power and the ability to work their way to the top
More women in Government positions
Ensuring all strategies and programs contribute to reducing gender gaps that impede development and slow progress
Empowering women farmers with the same access to land, new technologies and capital as men
Community education programs in place
Budget to include more programs and support more organizations that promote gender equality
More Ways
How might we foster gender equality in our educational systems and limit barriers related to poverty?
According to Population Services Organization:
“United Nations Women's focus prioritizes" :

*Increasing women's security - especially in relation to sexual violence
*Investing in women's empowerment
*"Securing women's equal participation in all peacekeeping, peace building and post-conflict reconstruction efforts"(Lakshmi, P., 2010).

The UN claims that "targeting women and girls for education, employment and health care can create a
multiplier effect
– on the well-being and productivity of families, communities and societies in general" (Lakshmi, P., 2010).


(Lakshmi, P., 2010).
Equal Educational Attainment as it Relates to Poverty in Women
Heather Lewis HSP 305
Western Washington University
Group Project - July 2014
National family health surveys point out that everyone suffers from the effects of educational inequalities on some level.

A survey in 2006 concluded “
economic development
cannot be sustained with a population that has merely completed primary school; it needs a dependable supply of highly educated and skilled
human capital
for which a
high level of educational attainment of both women and men is necessary
.” (Deonar, M., p. 20).

Who is effected by educational inequality?
Individuals
Families
Communities
Societies
Populations
Full transcript