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Age of Exploration and Conquest

AP Euro

Brooke Lee

on 3 November 2011

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Transcript of Age of Exploration and Conquest

Age of Exploration and Conquest
"Gold, Glory, God"
Crusades created European interest in Asia and the Middle East
Rise of nation-states ("new monarchs") led to political competition for empires and trade
Portugal and Spain sought to break Italian monopoly on trade with Asia
Impact of the Renaissance
Revival of studies: math
"dawn of a new age"
printed books: spread of texts & maps
Impact of the Renaissance:
Commercial Revolution: capitalist investments in exploration
Religious Motives: diffusion of Christianity to pagan peoples, Jesuits, religious persecution
Technological advances facilitated sea travel and navigation
Cartography & astronomy advances
Magnetic compass & astrolabe
Advancements in shipping
Portuguese caravel (lighter, faster)
Lateen sail & axial rudder
Gunpowder & cannons (protection & domination)
England began exploration later
John Cabot 1425-1500:
explored NE coast of North America
Jamestown 1607:
first permanent settlement
Tens of thousands of Englishmen came to eastern coast of North America in the 17th and 18th centuries
Far more Englishmen came to New World than France, Spain, and Portugal
Economic- all-water route to Asia (spice trade)
Religious- spread Christianity, against Islam
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) financed:
expeditions along W. African coast
navigation schools, new era of exploration
Bartholomew Dias (1450-1500):
rounded the southern tip of Africa, 1488
Vasco da Gama (1469-1525):
completed all-water expedition to India in 1498
Indian goods created a
large demand in Europe
No longer Italian monopoly on trade with Asia
one cause of decline of Italian city-states
Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512):
explored Brazil: perhaps first European to realize he'd discovered a new continent
(not the first to S.A.)
("America" named after him by German cartographer)
Portugal's major colony in the New World
Structure similar to Spanish colonies
17th c., large numbers of slaves imported
coffee, cotton, and sugar
significant racial mixture between white, Amerindian, and black
Jacques Cartier (1491-1557):
In search of NW Passage, explored the St. Lawrence River region, Canada
Quebec, France's first New World settlement, 1608
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
financed by Ferdinand & Isabella
reached Bahamas in 1492, believed he was in "Indies"
Four expeditions, chartered most major Caribbean islands & Honduras (CA)
Significance of Columbus: ushered in new era of European exploration & domination in New World
Bartolome de las Casas
priest, former conquistador
A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1552)
publicly criticized ruthlessness of Columbus & conquistadors
writings helped spread "black legend" in Protestant countries
reality- Protestant countries just as guilty
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided New World between Spain and Portugal
north-south line drawn down middle of Atlantic Ocean
Portugal retained Brazil and claims to Africa (and slave trade)
Spain received rest of the Americas

Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1517):
discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing Isthmus of Panama in 1513
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)
His ship was the first to circumnavigate the globe
Chartered the enormous size of the Pacific Ocean
Conquistadores: created empires by conquering Indians
Hernando Cortes (1485-1547):
conquered the Aztecs in Mesoamerica by 1521
Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541):
conquered the Inca Empire along the Andes Mountains in mondern-day Peru in 1532
Spanish Empire in the New World: Golden Age of Spain
outright conquered entire regions and subjugated populations
more like "New Imperialism" in 19th & 20th centuries

colonies existed for benefit of mother country
Spanish Mercantilism
mining of gold & silver was most important
Crown got 1/5 of all precious metals
accounted for 25% of crown's total income
Spain shipped manufactured goods to America and discouraged native industries to avoid competition with Spanish merchants
1545, opened world's richest silver mines in Peru
Political Structure:
empire divided into 4 vice-royalties (viceroy)
Audiencias- board of 12-15 judges, served as advisor to viceroy and highest judicial body

Encomienda system
Motive: Spanish gov't sought to reduce exploitation of Amerindians in Spanish empire
In reality, laws against exploitation were poorly enforced
System: Amerindians worked for an owner for certain number of days per week but retained other parcels of land to work for themselves
Spain's ability to forcibly utilize Amerindian labor was a major reason why Spanish empire imported few African slaves

(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
(cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
"Old Imperialism" in Africa & Asia
Characterized by establishing posts & forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate populations
Contrasted with:
Spanish Imperialism in New World
"New Imperialism" late 19th & early 20th centuries (entire nations conquered & exploited for European benefit)
by 1495, established forts & posts along African coast, penetrated inland to Timbuktu
da Gama set up trading posts in Goa & Calcutta
Alphonso d'Albuquerque (1453-1515):
laid foundation for Portuguese imperialism (16-17th c)
established strategy of making coastal regions bases to control Indian Ocean
established empire in Spice Islands (Indonesia 1510)
govenor of India 1509-1515
Francis Xavier (1506-1552):
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia
by 1550, thousands converted to Christianity (I, I, J)
Dutch Republic (Netherlands):
Dutch East India Company founded 1602
major force behind Dutch imperialism
expelled Portuguese from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and other Spice Islands (Indonesia)
by 1650, challenged Spain in New World & controlled much of American & African trade
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