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Effects of Teamwork on Learning and Performance in the Workplace

Business Psychology Group Assignment Presentation
by

Kath Turingan

on 15 June 2014

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Transcript of Effects of Teamwork on Learning and Performance in the Workplace

"Effects of Teamwork and Collaboration on Learning and Performance in the Workplace"
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Motivation
Individual Differences/Personality
Trait Theories
Gordon Allport(1936) - Cardinal, Central, Secondary
Raymond Cattell(1957) - 16 Personality Factors
Attitude
What is Attitude? (Three Components)
Introduction
Job design implements more challenging and accountable tasks
Careers and Careers Management
Types of Stress
Distress
Eustress
Acute Stress
Chronic Stress


Stressors - things that cause us stress
Stress in the Workplace
Models of Stress
Person - Environment Fit Model (French et al, 1982)
Match individual's skill, knowledge, ability and attitude to job
Demand - Control (Karasek, 1979)
Use skill and exercise control
Demand - Control - Support (Johnson & Hall, 1988)
Social support helps reduce negative effects of work-related stress
Employee Health and Stress
Stress triggers psychological and physiological symptoms
Coping depends on individual's personality and strategies
Kivimaki et al. (2002)
812 employees (545 men, 267 women)
1973 assessment to test for cardiovascular mortality
73 deaths, predicted by high strain jobs
Decreased performance
Reduced job satisfaction
Lowered sensitivity to others
Weaker immune system
Lack of motivation to learn
Unwilling to cooperate
Effects of Stress
Reducing Stress
Give employees control
Vary job tasks
Flexible hours
Recognize performance
Long-term Solutions for individuals
Exercise and relaxation
Eat well
Manage time
Balance home and work commitments
Social support network
Made up of three factors
Direction
Effort
Persistence
Theories of Need
Maslow(1943,1954): Hierarchy of needs



Physiological needs


Safety needs


Belongingness needs

Esteem needs


Self-actualisation needs
Alderfer(1972)

Existence; Relatedness; Growth (ERG)
VIE
Expectancy
Instrumentality
Valence
Motivation
Self-concept and individual differences in motivation
Intrinsic process motivation
Extrinsic/instrumental motivation
External/self-concept
Internal self-concept
Goal internalisation
Affective component (Feelings)
Cognitive component (Thinking, believes)
Behavioural component (action)
Attitude is 'certain regularities of an individual's feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of his/her environment'
--Secord & Backman 1969
Attitude's impact towards teams
Work-related Attitudes
Job Satisfaction
organizational Commitment
Performance-related Attitudes
Employee Engagement
Job Involvement
Justice and Fairness
Positive attitudes

Better communication
Increased morale
Improved performance
Higher productivity
Negative attitudes
Dismantle teamwork
increased stress
cripple productivity
Introduction

Work teams should be designed to promote team cognition and team member exchange
Introduction
Based on Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model (1975, 1976) job enrichment is attainable through:
Job design addresses the implication of the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg, 1974; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) that extrinsic factors, in isolation, leads to job dissatisfaction
Introduction
Job design should implement variety, autonomy, and completeness (Wall, 1982)
These are intrinsic in well-designed work teams
Based on the socio-technical theory, teams are affected by the following:
technical factors
governance factors
normative factors (Thompson and Wallace, 1995, 1996)

Maximum effort may not be exhibited by each individual within the gorup
Team Cognition
Mental models that allow collaboration and coordination (He, Butler, & King, 2007)
Based on the Model of Interactional Motivation (Turner, 1987), the lack of ontological security results is primative defences
Lack of team cognition results in Type A team members filling knowledge vacuums (Linstead, Fulop, & Lilley).
Team Member Exchange
Based on Social Interdependence Theory, this usually exists when there is positive social interdependence
The lack of team member exchange results in psychological ownership
Willingness of team members to share information, ideas and feedback.
The Big Five
Emotionl Stability
Extroversion
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Openness/Intellect
Definition

Michael K. Mount(1998) - Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability (Interpersonal Interaction), Teamwork
Holland’s RIASEC Model
Murray R. Barrick (2001) - Conscientiousness and Emotional Stabiity (Job Performance)
Theories and Implications
Characterize people by their resemblance to each of six personality types;

Psychoanalysis - Impulsive, unconscious, irrational
Behaviourism - observable, operant conditioning, classical conditioning
Realistic
Imaginative
Artistic
Social
Enterprising
Conventional
Social learning - Reciprocal Determinism, Observational Learning, Self-efficacy
Multiple Intelligences and Social Interdependence
Link between Holland’s RIASEC model and Big 5 personality dimension and their affect on team work
Enterprising and Social => Extraversion
These people like to socialize and work in teams.

Conventional => Conscientiousness
Refers to people who are well organized,
like to follow rules and regulation and are not imaginative.

Investigative and Artistic => Openness/Intellect
This type of people are imaginative and open to new experiences,
don’t like restrictions, interested in concepts and logics.

Allport, G. W. (1936) Trait Names: A Psycho-lexical Study. Psychological Monographs 47,(1),1-171

Arnold. J., Randall. R. et al (2010). Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace, Fifth Edition, Pearson, Chapter 7-8

Backman, Carl W. and Secord, Paul F (1968). A Social Psychological View of Education. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 160
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next?. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1‐2), 9-30.

Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and motivation structure and measurement.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 16, 250-279. [Accessed March 13, 2014]

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170. [Accessed March 14, 2014]

He, J., Butler, B.S., & King, W.R. (2007). Team Cognition: Development and Evolution in Software Project Teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24, 2, 261-292. [Accessed March 13, 2014]





Bibliography
Bibliography
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational researcher, 38(5), 365-379.

Johnson, J. V., & Hall, E. M. 1988. Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American journal of public health, 78(10), 1336-1342.
Karasek, RA 1979, 'Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign', Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 2, pp. 285-308, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2014.

Kivimäki, M, Leino-Arjas, P, Luukkonen, R, Riihimäki, H, Vahtera, J, & Kirjonen, J. 2002, 'Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees', BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 325, 7369, p. 857, MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2014.

Liu, Y., Keller, R.T., & Shih, H. (2011). The impact of team-member exchange, differentiation, team commitment, and knowledge sharing on R&D project
team performance. R&D Management, 41, 3, 274-287. [Accessed March 13, 2014]

Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Stewart, G. L. (1998). Five-factor model of personality and performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Human performance, 11(2-3), 145-165.

Osland, J., Kolb, D., Rubin, I. and Turner, M. E. (2007). The Organizational Behavior Workbook: An Experiential Approach. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Bibliography
Paul, J. P., Robertson, K. B., & Herzberg, F. (1969). Job enrichment pays off. Harvard Business Review, 47, 61-78. [Accessed March 14, 2014]
Thompson, P. and Wallace, T. (1996). Redisigning production through teamworking: Case studies from the Volvo Truck Corporation. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 16, 2, 103-118. [Accessed March 13, 2014]

Turner, M. E., and Pratkanis, A. R. (Eds.) (1994). Social psychological perspectives on affirmative action. [Special Issue]. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 15, (1 & 2).

Wall, T.B. (1982) ‘Perspective on Job redisign’, in J.E. Kelly and C.W. Clegg (eds), Autonomy and Contol in the Workplace. London: Croom Helm.
Cannon, W.B. 1932. ‘The wisdom of the body’. New York: Norton.
French, J. R., Caplan, R. D., & Van Harrison, R. 1982. The mechanisms of job stress and strain (Vol. 8). New York: Wiley.
Introduction
Motivation
Individual Differences
Attitudes
Stress
Careers and Career Management
How does collaboration in teams affect learning and performance?
Full transcript