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Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Transcript of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Stainless steel : iron, chromium, nickel, carbon
Brass : copper, zinc
Bronze : copper, tin
Duralumin : aluminium, copper, magnesium
Solder : lead, tin Ions are electrically charged particles (either positive or negative) Example: NaCl (Na and Cl ) + - Chemical Formula of a Compound The chemical formula states
the types of atoms
the ratio of the different atoms H O 2 Hydrogen Oxygen Number of Hydrogen atoms (two) Thus, ratio of H:O is 2:1 and this is fixed Naming Compound 1. A compound made up of two elements has a name that ends in -ide • Sodium chloride — elements sodium and chlorine 2. A compound that contains hydroxide ions , OH– (a negatively charged ion made up of oxygen and hydrogen) is named a hydroxide. • Potassium hydroxide — potassium ions and hydroxide ions 3. A compound that contains a negatively charged polyatomic ion containing oxygen usually has a name ending in –ate. Carbon dioxide — elements carbon and oxygen • Copper(II) sulphate — contains oxygen atoms in the sulphate ion CuSO SO 4 4 2- (sulfate ion) Writing Chemical Formula 1. For many compounds that contain both metallic and non-metallic elements, the symbol of the metallic element is written first. 2. The number of atoms is written as a subscript, to the right of the atom’s symbol. • Water (H O, not H2O or 2HO or HO) Calcium oxide (CaO), Magnesium carbonate (MgCO ) 3 2 2 3. It is not necessary to write the subscript ‘1’. Calcium oxide (CaO, not Ca O ) 1 1 4. The oxygen atom is usually written at the end of the formula. Carbon Monoxide (CO, not OC) Pb(NO ) 3 2 How many atoms of each element are there? Name the compounds. MgO CaCO 3 Heat can be used to break down compounds into elements or simpler compounds. Such a chemical reaction is called thermal decomposition. Mercury(II) Oxide Oxygen Compounds 2