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Intro #4: Research Methods

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by

Cyd Skinner

on 31 August 2016

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Transcript of Intro #4: Research Methods

conformitiy?
obedience?
people are basically evil?
Research
So, this is another problem with research. Your textbook is clearly presenting the Milgram study inaccurately. If you can catch any further errors like this over the semester bring them to class and get extra credit!
From Radiolab
Episode called
Who's Bad
Available at http://www.radiolab.org/story/180103-whos-bad/
What do you
know
about the Milgram study?
False Consensus Effect
Hindsight Bias
"Yeah... I knew that tongue map wasn't true..."
The Milgram study
3 types of
NON-critical thinking
Empiricism
Research Methods
http://www.education.com/worksheet/article/taste-experiment/
http://www.theguardian.com/world/picture/2012/oct/25/auschwitz-concentration-camp-wilhelm-brasse
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/22/22044/1.html
Dogmatism
http://sppiblog.org/tag/97-consensus
http://www.carisadel.com/2942/gays-aids-church-3/
Facts
What we can reliably and repeatedly see, measure, identify as existing.
Theories
How we logically organize the facts.
Hypotheses
What we think might happen next - new facts are unveiled by building on existing theories.
These are not beliefs.
Research Strategies
3 types of studies
or
3 kinds of research
Only use the word 'experiment' when you are talking about .
Experiment
Correlational Study
if
Descriptive
Study
Variables
Independent
Dependent
Participants
experimental
group
control group
random assignment
Everyone must be as
similar
as possible.
still
similar
still
similar
gets the
independent variable
stays
the
same
now they are

not

similar
Test the difference and that's your dependent variable
the thing we manipulate
the new thing
the invention
the intervention
the response
your results
the score change
the behavior change
the
cause
the
effect
we only call it an experiment when we are intruding.
we want both of these things to
vary
Varies because one group gets it and the other doesn't.
Varies because the two groups get different results.
prediction
then
C C
showing that one thing is related to another
if
then
and/or
Naturalistic
lab setting
case study
survey
Cosmopolitan
These are not research, but marketing tricks.
Statistical
Methods
Central Tendency:
mean = average
median = middle score
mode = most frequent
Variability:
range = highest to lowest
standard deviation = how different the scores are
Frequency Distribution:
bar graph
histogram
Bell Curve:
normal:
skewed:
Statistical significance:
Effect size
# observed
Variability
For extra credit write 1 page explaining why this is so important: http://pss.sagepub.com/content/25/1/7.full.pdf+html

Bias in research:
demand characteristics
sample bias
validity
Double-blind experiments
observer-expectancy
subject-expectancy
placebos
Descriptive
stats just describe what you've seen.
Inferential
stats try to apply your results to others.
Shrodinger's cat is alive or dead. You open the box, you know.
Descriptive
.
Here is another box.
You
infer
the cat is alive or dead based on what happened when you opened the box before.
Full transcript