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Construction Managers at the Design Table: Qualifying the Impacts

Did you know you can measure whether students have fragmented or cohesive conceptions of mathematics, or whether they learn at a surface- or deep-level? Did you know there are concept inventories available for research purposes at the level of prealgebra

Alexander Deuell

on 2 May 2011

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Transcript of Construction Managers at the Design Table: Qualifying the Impacts

Construction Managers at the Design Table:
Qualifying the Impacts Alexander S. Deuell

Sustainable Construction Management
and Engineering

State University of New York
College of Environmental Science and Forestry Benefits Data Collection Research Method Thematic Content Analysis Interview Administration Participant selection Interview Contact and proposal Barriers Additional
IPD Principles Un-intended
Consequences The Problem "Several professional organizations are supporting the advancement of IPD, and several projects have demonstrated its benefits; however, the amount of projects using IPD remains relatively small." - Kent and Becerik-Gerber, 2010 -Kent and Becerik-Gerber, 2010 IPD and DBB Options within current framework
Simple to implement
Substsantial improvement Goal Methodology Discussion Results Conclusion Cost


Time Other factors

such as teamwork

are of high importance Direct

and indirect

benefits The CM is often

in the best position

to exert influence Can be used

as a stepping stone

towards IPD Not a fix-all

consider IPD

in some cases Semi-structured
Interviews Research
Question Interview
Guide Project Managers and Project Executives employed by multi-billion dollar construction management firms with offices in Upstate New York The interview guide broke down the research question and highlighted specific questions that were designed to challenge the participant and provoke insightful, thoughtful and meaningful responses.
From the perspective of Upstate New York construction management practitioners how can the involvement of the Construction Manager during the early stages of the design process provide increased value to a project, particularly in the areas of cost, quality, and time? The method used was selected based on both the ability to accurately identify the viewpoints of the sample population, and equally important, reduce the participants' resistance to the chosen method. Sample
Population Transcription Coding Matrix Common themes Build
Therory Qualitative Semi-structured Realist Understanding user/owner goals Phasing Document Review Constructability Scope improvements Change orders Cost savings “The sooner you are involved in a project the more you can understand what the owners needs really are; it is a lot more difficult to come into a job at the end trying to make recommendations when you really don’t understand their hot buttons. Most people, if you ask them what is important to them they will only hit five of the ten things… the others just take some time [to uncover].” -Participant 5 "One of the things that doesn't happen soon enough is getting the user group involved." -Participant 6 "The most ideal would probably be... being able to have the time, and again all the resources to sit with the owner and find out what their wants are." -Participant 3 "There are little things that are an irritant later later on ...[after taking bids] and now we show the owner [what they are going to get] and they say 'that's not what we talked about we don't want that.'" - Participant 4 On any job that has phasing, the archtitects often have trouble putting together an adequate phasing plan and sometimes steps of the process are missed. "It is all build-able it just costs more money." -Participant 1 “In most cases when [the construction manager is not involved during design] the phasing of the construction is usually what suffers and the Owner or client suffers along with it.” -Participant 4 "What we see on a regular basis with all our school work is that the deep impact is the phasing and how our work affects the owner." -Participant 8 “If…We are not involved, then I don’t care who the architect is, the documents won’t be as good as if we had reviewed the drawings.” -Participant 1 "An architect will put a design together , but we have to look at, 'OK now is it build-able." -Participant 8 "What happens often times is you get brought in... late in pre-construction and then you start getting up against the schedule with regards to getting the bid documents out, you do the constructability review, but then there is no time to incorporate it into the bid documents." -Participant 6 "From the client's perspective sometimes they think that they have bought certain things from the architect, that may or may not be true." -Participant 4 "One thing that we... as construction managers bring to the table early on in the process is clarifying the un-bought scope" -Participant 6 "One thing is if we get called in late, the drawings are labeled such that we end up with a lot of notes that say other, and we don't ususlly have a have a contractor that's labeled other." -Participant 4 "Or eliminate double-bought scope and save money." -Participant 6 "We were able to look at the design a little bit before it went to bid, but we weren't hired to do anything about it. There have been more change issues than I would have thought... Had we been involved I think we would have eliminated a lot of them." -Participant 1 "What happens is that when the job is not carefully thought out, planned, scoped, understood and scheduled? The job ends up with lots of change orders." -Participant 7 “They spent way more on changes than they would have if [the construction manager] would have reviewed the documents.” -Participant #1 “If we aren’t on a project early it adds cost mostly… the client can’t get as much for their dollar.” -Participant #4 “Most clients that have been through a couple of projects see the value in it and get the CM in there a little earlier” -Participant #4 Client Experience “Owners are not educated enough on the value brought to pre-construction.” -Participant #1 “Just like buying a car you don’t go buy the first thing you walk up to at the dealership you need to figure out what your needs are and what vehicle will meet those needs…[Clients] need to educate themselves a little bit, [construction] is a huge undertaking.” -Participant #4 “Owners who have been down that road where it didn’t work, where they put all their eggs in a basket with a clerk and a general contractor…they are the ones who will more quickly embrace the CM process.” -Participant #5 Risk with funding Inflation “You want to get the project on paper and put out to bid, so that you can get some numbers back and then get started on your work before inflation keeps going up and then [the client] is looking at higher cost across the board.” -Participant #3 “Until you get SED approval… you don’t want to string yourself up too far.” -Participant #4 BIM Teamwork/partnering “If we can share Revit files and we can make the coordination drawings more valuable, that would benefit a DBB project.” “Get the user group intelligent and involved as early as you can, utilize BIM.” -Participant #6 -Participant #1 “Ideally…hiring the architect and construction manager in parallel so that right from the start the same information is conveyed to both parties at the same time, so that as design develops and the project continues we all have the same information…that history is important going forward.” -Participant #4 “It is all communication, making sure all the stakeholders are on the same page… teamwork is probably the number one thing on any successful project.” -Participant #2 -Participant #1 Cost “[If owners are confronted with] an upfront cost whether it be a quarter of a point, half a point, or three quarters of a point they [ask] ‘Where am I getting that back?’” -Participant #7 “[Owners] would have to incur some more cost from the get go” -Participant #3 “The simple reason we aren’t involved more often earlier is simply economics” -Participant #6 “Sometimes with an owner they view it as money they don’t have to spend, while we view it as the best money they can spend” Construction Managers at the
Design Table Goals and Objectives: Partial Integration Reduce cost
Improve quality
Require less time Who Benifits Owner
Construction Managers Involving the construction manager during the early design stage of a project will add identifiable value in the areas of cost, quality and time. Thesis: What is to be done? "Traditional delivery and contracting approaches contemplate separate silos of responsibility that, in practice, yield inefficiencies whenever there is a hand-off from one silo to another." - AIA, 2007 Inefficient Delivery Legal Requirements for Public Projects General Municipalities Law
Article 5-A, Section 103 General Municipalities Law
Article 5-A Section 101 Competitive bidding
process Seperate specification sections “Public procurement policies since the 1940s have greatly embraced design-bid-build, making it the most widely used project delivery method in the United States for the majority of the 20th century” "The current procurement process separates the designer from the builder indiscriminately... coordination between these two occupations in the whole process is difficult." -Miller et al., 2000 Epistemology Identify what specific benefits DBB projects could realize if construction
managers were involved early in the design process. • Understand user/owner goals
• Phasing
• Document review
• Constructability
• Scope improvements
• Change orders
• Cost savings • Cost
• Client experience • Risk with funding
• Inflation • BIM
• Teamwork/partnering Benefits Barriers Unintended consequences Additional IPD principles Availability
Qualifications Phone
E-mail Convenience
Recorded Reduced playback speed
Review by participants Realist
Field applicable Nearly mutually exclusive
Little overlap Establish a threshold
Not intended to quantify importance Mentioned by four or more
Organized according to interview guide Increase cost

Reduce quality

Require more time
Full transcript