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US History - 11.1 - 11.2 - 11.3 - 11.4 - 11.5 - The Civil War

USH 11.1 through 11.5
by

McDaris

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of US History - 11.1 - 11.2 - 11.3 - 11.4 - 11.5 - The Civil War

Section 5: The Legacy of the War
Section 3: Life During Wartime
“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that…”
Section 2: The Politics of War
Section 1: The Civil War Begins
Chapter 11: The Civil War
Political Changes
War ends threat of secession; increases power of federal government
The War Changes The Nation
Lincoln – “I’m going to be beaten…unless some changes take place…”
Lincoln won with 55%
Election of 1864
The Election of 1864
Democrats want immediate armistice, nominate McClellan
Radical Republicans—harsh conditions for readmission to Union
Republicans change name, choose pro-Union Democrat as running mate
Lincoln pessimistic; Northern victories, troops’ votes give him win
Election of 1864
Followed by 25,000 slaves
Continued through SC
In NC, gave food and supplies
the end was near
Sherman’s March
Sherman’s strategy: to destroy the will of the Southerners to fight
Sept. 1864, Sherman takes Atlanta; South tries to cut supply lines
Sherman cuts wide path of destruction in Georgia; lives off land
December, takes Savannah, turns north to help Grant fight Lee
inflicts even more destruction in SC
Sherman’s March
Grant Appoints Sherman
March 1864, Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union armies
Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of MS division
Grant, Sherman believe in total war to destroy South’s will to fight
Changes in US Army
Confederate Morale
South unable to attack; hopes to undo North’s morale, get armistice
Civilian morale plummets; public calls for peace
Discord in government prevents Davis from governing effectively
Southern Morale
Section 4: The North Takes Charge
Northern Economy
Conscription
Casualties, desertions lead to conscription—draft to serve in army
Both armies allow draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them
Planters with more than 20 slaves exempted
90% eligible Southerners serve; 92% Northern soldiers volunteer
Problems Faced
Lincoln’s View of Slavery
Federal government has no power to abolish slavery where it exists
Lincoln decides army can emancipate slaves who labor for Confederacy
Emancipation discourages Britain from supporting the South
Proclaiming Emancipation
Known as the “Seven Days’ Battle”
McClellan marched down the Potomac River on the way to Richmond
Robert E. Lee moved against McClellan to save Richmond
Tactics unnerved McClellan who backed away
“On to Richmond!”
Ironclads
New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, Farragut
Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning
March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fight to a draw
A Revolution in Warfare
Economic Changes
National Bank Act of 1863—federal system of chartered banks
Gap between North and South widens:
North: industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold
South: industry, farms destroyed
The Surrender at Appomatox
After Petersburg, Davis’s government leaves Richmond, sets it afire
Lee surrenders April 1865 at village of Appomattox Court House
Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms
Lincoln didn’t want a vindictive peace
Surrender at Appomattox
Grant and Lee in Virginia
Grant’s strategy: immobilize Lee in VA while Sherman raids Georgia
May 1864–April 1865, Grant and Lee fight many battles
Heavy losses on both sides; North can replace soldiers, South cannot
Grant & Lee in VA
The Memorial Ceremony
November 1863, ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg
Edward Everett, noted speaker, gives flowery two-hour speech
Lincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address asserts unity of U.S.
honors dead soldiers
calls for living to dedicate selves to preserve Union, freedom
Gettysburg Address
The Second Day
South attacks Union led by General George Meade on Cemetery Ridge
North repulses repeated attacks on Little Round Top
Many exhausted Confederates surrender; Union line holds
Gettysburg
Prisons
Living conditions in prisons worse than in
army camps
Andersonville—worst Confederate prison,
in Georgia
has no shelter, sanitation; 1/3 of prisoners die
Northern prisons more space, food, shelter
than Southern
12% of Confederate prisoners, 15% of Union prisoners die
Prisons
Southern Shortages
Food shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation, loss of slaves
Blockade creates other shortages; some Confederates trade with enemy
Southern Economy
African-American Soldiers
African Americans 1% of North’s population, by war’s end 10% of army
Lower pay than white troops for most of war; limits on military rank
High mortality from disease; POWs killed or returned to slavery
Fort Pillow, TN—Confederates massacre over 200 African-American POWs
African-Americans
The poor were in slums with disease
Drafted to fight and free slave = slaves taking their jobs
2/3 were Irish
Lynched 11
Ruined homes
& draft offices
New York Draft Riots
Dealing with Dissent
Neither side completely unified; both sides face divided loyalties
Lincoln suspends habeas corpus:
order to bring accused to court, name charges
Seizes telegraph offices so cannot be used for subversion
Copperheads—Northern Democrats advocating peace—among arrested
Davis denounces Lincoln, then suspends habeas corpus in South
Lincoln expands presidential powers, sets precedent
Both Sides Face Political Problems
Britain Pursues Its Own Interests
Britain has cotton inventory, new sources; does not need South
Needs Northern wheat, corn; chooses neutrality
Britain Remains Neutral
New Weapons
Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets
Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines are used
Fighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks
Union and Confederate Strategies
Union advantages: soldiers, factories, food, railroads
Confederate advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation
Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South
blockade Southern ports
divide Confederacy in two in west
capture Richmond, Confederate capital
Confederate strategy: defense, invade North if opportunity arises
American Expect a Short War
Vicksburg Under Siege
Confederate Vicksburg prevents Union from controlling Mississippi
Spring 1863, Union destroys MS rail lines, sacks Jackson
Grant’s assaults on Vicksburg fail, begins siege in May
Starving Confederates surrender on July 4
Port Hudson, LA falls 5 days later; Confederacy completely divided
Vicksburg
Gettysburg
Three-day battle at Gettysburg cripples South, turning point of war

Confederates go to find shoes; meet Union cavalry

July 1, Confederates drive Union back, take town
Gettysburg
Prelude to Gettysburg
May 1863, South defeats North at Chancellorsville
Stonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troops
dies 8 days later of pneumonia
Lee invades North to get supplies, support of Democrats
The Road to Gettysburg
Lives on the Lines
Lack of sanitation, personal hygiene lead to disease in camp
Diets are unvaried, limited, unappealing
Soldiers
McClellan’s Army found Lee’s army order in a meadow
Revealed that Lee and Jackson’s armies were separated
September 17, 1862
McClellan attacked Lee
Lee retreated
McClellan did not pursue because he was too cautious
Bloodiest battle in the war 26,000
McClellan was fired 11/7/1862
Antietam
Protecting Washington, D.C.
After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers
Appoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac
Union Armies in the West
Lincoln’s Dilemma
Reinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secede
Evacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endanger Union
The Confederacy Takes Control
Confederate soldiers take over government, military installations
Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor
Commanded by Major Robert Anderson
Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter
First Shots
Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food
For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy
Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war
fires on Sumter April 12, 1861
Virginia Secedes
Fall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlist
Virginia unwilling to fight South; secedes from Union
antislavery western counties secede from VA
Three more states secede; border states remain in Union
Bull Run
Bull Run—first battle, near Washington;
Confederate victory
Both sides were inexperienced
The Union forces were commanded by General Irvin McDowell
Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson
for firm stand in battle
Forts Henry and Donelson
General Ulysses S. Grant—brave, tough, decisive commander in West
Feb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson
Shiloh
March 1862, Confederate troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh
Grant counterattacks
Confederates retreat
thousands dead, wounded
Shiloh teaches preparation needed, Confederacy vulnerable in West
Union victory
Farragut on the Lower Mississippi
David G. Farragut commands fleet that takes New Orleans, April 1862
takes Baton Rouge, Natchez
The War for Capitals
“On to Richmond”
McClellan waits to attack Richmond; drills troops for 5 months
Spring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern army
Lee, McClellan fight Seven Days’ Battle; Union leaves Richmond area
Antietam
Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Run; marches into Maryland
Lee, McClellan clash at Antietam—bloodiest single-day battle
Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; McClellan does not pursue
Lincoln fires McClellan
The Trent Affair
Confederate diplomats travel on RMS Trent to get British, French support
U.S. Navy arrests them; Lincoln frees them, averts war with Britain
Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation—issued by Lincoln in 1863:
frees slaves behind Confederate lines
does not apply to areas occupied by Union or slave states in Union
Reactions to the Proclamation
Proclamation has symbolic value, gives war high moral purpose
Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery
Northern Democrats claim will antagonize South, prolong war
Confederacy becomes more determined to preserve way of life
Compromise no longer possible; one side must defeat the other
Draft Riots
White workers fear Southern blacks will come North, compete for jobs
Angry at having to free slaves, mobs rampage through New York City
Slave Resistance in the Confederacy
Slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines
On plantations, destroy property, refuse to go with fleeing owners
Northern Economic Growth
Industries that supply army boom; some contractors cheat and profit
Wages do not keep up with prices; workers’ standard of living drops
Women replace men on farms, city jobs, government jobs
Congress establishes first income tax on earnings to pay for war
Civil War Medicine
Most doctors had limited medical knowledge
Little or no knowledge of hygiene
More men died of infection than bullets
U.S. Sanitary Commission works to better hygiene; hire, train nurse
Surgeon general orders 1/3 of nurses be women
Union nurse Clara Barton serves on front lines
Southern women also volunteer as Confederate nurses
The Third Day
Armies exchange vicious artillery fire
Lee orders attack on Union lines; North cuts down Confederates
Meade does not counterattack; Lee retreats to Virginia
staggering losses on both sides
Costs of the War
Hundreds of thousands dead, wounded; lives disrupted
Financially, war costs the government estimated $3.3 billion
New Birth of Freedom
1865, Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in all states
Civilians Follow New Paths
Some soldiers stay in army; others become civilians; many go west
Clara Barton helps found American Red Cross in 1881
The Assassination of Lincoln
April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre
Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, trapped by Union cavalry, shot
7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train
Full transcript