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Unit 3B- Nationalsim= Revolution and Unification

Chapter 24
by

Teri Lina

on 26 October 2017

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Transcript of Unit 3B- Nationalsim= Revolution and Unification

Nationalistic Revolutions
LATIN AMERICANS WIN INDEPENDENCE!
Division in Spanish Colonial Society:
1.) PENINSULARES- Those born in Spain, held high office positions
2.) CREOLES- Spaniards born in Latin America, army officers
3.) Mestizos- Mixed European and Nat. American blood
4.) MULATTOS- Mixed European and African blood
5.) AFRICANS- slaves
6.) NATIVE AMERICANS
Why were Latin Americans interested in Independence?
1.) Resentment of European Control
2.) Enlightenment Ideas (influenced by US and France)
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Simon Bolivar
Miguel Hidalgo & Agustin de Iturbide
Dom Pedro
** Most Revolution Leaders were:
EDUCATED CREOLES, INFLUENCED BY THE ENLIGHTENMENT
wAS iNDEPENDENCE THE RIGHT
WAY TO GO IN lATIN aMERICA?
eUROPE fACES REVOLUTION!!!
Government Philosophies:
Conservative:
Liberal:
Radical:
Supported traditional views, like Monarchs
- Usually nobles & Wealthy landowners
Wanted reform through a Parliament, like Democracy
- Only landowners could vote though
Favored drastic change & Democracy to all
- "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
THE BALKANS:
cOUNTRIES THAT BORDER THE eASTERN mEDITTERANEAN
History of the Balkans:
1. Traditionally controlled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire

2. GREECE- wanted independence; spurred by ancient Greek ideals
** In 1827, Greece began a revolution for INDEPENDENCE!
- They were assisted by: France, Britain, Russia

- Greece was granted indepedence in 1830
** This led to a series of Nationalist uprisings against conservative governments***
France after Napoleon Bonaparte
After Napoleon was sent to exile, France's Gov. resumed a:
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
After a series of unpopular Kings...
Another Revolution occurred, and a new constitution was created
December 1848: Louis Napoleon III elected President!!
His accomplishments:
Built up Industry
Created Public Works
Unemployment decreased
REFORM IN RUSSIA UNDER ALEXANDER II:
1853- Czar Nicholas I started the CRIMEAN WAR (for warm water access... again)
Lack of: INDUSTRY

In 1856, RUSSIA LOSES AGAINST G. BRIT, FRANCE, SARDINIA AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Nicholas' son takes power after the war...
ALEXANDER II
- His goal was MODERNIZATION & INDUSTRIALIZATION
He granted Freedom to the Serfs

Russia expnaded Industry
** This was considered Alexander's boldest reform
NATIONALISM in many forms...
Types of Nationalist Goals
UNIFICATION:


SEPARATION:


STATE-BUILDING:
mERGING SIMILAR CULTURES THAT
WERE RULED SEPARATELY


cULTURALLY DISTINCT GROUP THAT
bREAK AWAY


cULTURALLY DISTINCT GROUPS JOIN
TO CREATE A SINGLE CULTURE
ITALY & GERMANY


GREECE


UNITED STATES
UNIFICATION
PREVIOUS NATIONAL STATUS OF ITALY-
It was a series of independent kingdoms, with the largest being Piedmont-Sardinia
The TWO important "Unify-ers"
Camillo Di Cavour
- Prime Minister of Pied.- Sard; Combined and took back land to unify Northern Italy (1852)
GUISEPPE GARIBALDI:
Nationalist Rebel; fought throughout Southern Italy to unify govs.
BY 1870
- North and South Italy combined under the leadership of King Victor Emmanuel II
2.) Germany
Otto Von Bismarck and
the "Junkers: 1862
He was a JUNKER:
PRUSSIA'S CONSERVATIVE
LANDOWNERS
'Realpolitik'=
- Tough Power Politics
- He ruled without the consent of Parliament
Bismarck wanted to EXPAND Prussian Territory to include other:
GERMAN SPEAKING TERRITORIES
Many Wars were fought:
Seven weeks War:
Prussia Quickly defeated Austria to gain German Territory
Franco-Prussian War:
- PROBLEM: Southern German Catholics-
Did not support Protestant Prussia
- France declared war on Germany- 7/19/1870
- Led to high nationalism in Southern Germans... Prussia defeats France!
Result:
January 18, 1871-
The Unified German nation was created- called
GERMANY!!
By 1871, Europe's most powerful nations were:
Great Britain & Germany!!
Encomienda System-
Native Americans (indigenous) were
forced to work & exploited for Spanish landowners, in return they were
protected and educated in Christianity
Who controlled Latin America?
Spain, but also France & Portugal
NATIONALISM
IMPERIALISM
Loyalty and Pride in one's nation or common identity within a group (culture, history, language, etc.)
A practice where a stronger country
(mother-country)
takes control over a weaker territory
(colony)
1.) ITALY
Since Charlemagne (Holy Roman Empire), Germans were dispersed throughout 'states' in central Europe
Previous National Status of Germans-
PRUSSIA:
Most Powerful of all German
states.
- Landowning family; appointed to several high positions
- As a foreign diplomat Learned from the other powerful nations; Germans needed to UNIFY
- Ruled with an "Iron Fist"
Unification Means WAR!
Under Bismarck, Prussia successfully acquired land from:
1.) AUSTRIA
2.) FRANCE
Bismarck as Kaiser
- He encouraged strong pride in German-people who thus rallied behind Prussia's efforts.
His Slogan:
"BLOOD and IRON"
Military
Industry
2.) SEPARATION
* Some European groups used 'NATIONALISM' to:
Separate from control
AUSTRIA
- Under Hapsburg rule, The Austrian Empire controlled:
Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Germans, etc.
OTTOMAN EMPIRE
- Under the Ottoman Turks, they controlled:
"Balkans": Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, etc.
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