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Unit 3B- Nationalsim= Revolution and Unification
Transcript of Unit 3B- Nationalsim= Revolution and Unification
LATIN AMERICANS WIN INDEPENDENCE!
Division in Spanish Colonial Society:
1.) PENINSULARES- Those born in Spain, held high office positions
2.) CREOLES- Spaniards born in Latin America, army officers
3.) Mestizos- Mixed European and Nat. American blood
4.) MULATTOS- Mixed European and African blood
5.) AFRICANS- slaves
6.) NATIVE AMERICANS
Why were Latin Americans interested in Independence?
1.) Resentment of European Control
2.) Enlightenment Ideas (influenced by US and France)
Miguel Hidalgo & Agustin de Iturbide
** Most Revolution Leaders were:
EDUCATED CREOLES, INFLUENCED BY THE ENLIGHTENMENT
wAS iNDEPENDENCE THE RIGHT
WAY TO GO IN lATIN aMERICA?
eUROPE fACES REVOLUTION!!!
Supported traditional views, like Monarchs
- Usually nobles & Wealthy landowners
Wanted reform through a Parliament, like Democracy
- Only landowners could vote though
Favored drastic change & Democracy to all
- "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
cOUNTRIES THAT BORDER THE eASTERN mEDITTERANEAN
History of the Balkans:
1. Traditionally controlled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire
2. GREECE- wanted independence; spurred by ancient Greek ideals
** In 1827, Greece began a revolution for INDEPENDENCE!
- They were assisted by: France, Britain, Russia
- Greece was granted indepedence in 1830
** This led to a series of Nationalist uprisings against conservative governments***
France after Napoleon Bonaparte
After Napoleon was sent to exile, France's Gov. resumed a:
After a series of unpopular Kings...
Another Revolution occurred, and a new constitution was created
December 1848: Louis Napoleon III elected President!!
Built up Industry
Created Public Works
REFORM IN RUSSIA UNDER ALEXANDER II:
1853- Czar Nicholas I started the CRIMEAN WAR (for warm water access... again)
Lack of: INDUSTRY
In 1856, RUSSIA LOSES AGAINST G. BRIT, FRANCE, SARDINIA AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Nicholas' son takes power after the war...
- His goal was MODERNIZATION & INDUSTRIALIZATION
He granted Freedom to the Serfs
Russia expnaded Industry
** This was considered Alexander's boldest reform
NATIONALISM in many forms...
Types of Nationalist Goals
mERGING SIMILAR CULTURES THAT
WERE RULED SEPARATELY
cULTURALLY DISTINCT GROUP THAT
cULTURALLY DISTINCT GROUPS JOIN
TO CREATE A SINGLE CULTURE
ITALY & GERMANY
PREVIOUS NATIONAL STATUS OF ITALY-
It was a series of independent kingdoms, with the largest being Piedmont-Sardinia
The TWO important "Unify-ers"
Camillo Di Cavour
- Prime Minister of Pied.- Sard; Combined and took back land to unify Northern Italy (1852)
Nationalist Rebel; fought throughout Southern Italy to unify govs.
- North and South Italy combined under the leadership of King Victor Emmanuel II
Otto Von Bismarck and
the "Junkers: 1862
He was a JUNKER:
- Tough Power Politics
- He ruled without the consent of Parliament
Bismarck wanted to EXPAND Prussian Territory to include other:
GERMAN SPEAKING TERRITORIES
Many Wars were fought:
Seven weeks War:
Prussia Quickly defeated Austria to gain German Territory
- PROBLEM: Southern German Catholics-
Did not support Protestant Prussia
- France declared war on Germany- 7/19/1870
- Led to high nationalism in Southern Germans... Prussia defeats France!
January 18, 1871-
The Unified German nation was created- called
By 1871, Europe's most powerful nations were:
Great Britain & Germany!!
Native Americans (indigenous) were
forced to work & exploited for Spanish landowners, in return they were
protected and educated in Christianity
Who controlled Latin America?
Spain, but also France & Portugal
Loyalty and Pride in one's nation or common identity within a group (culture, history, language, etc.)
A practice where a stronger country
takes control over a weaker territory
Since Charlemagne (Holy Roman Empire), Germans were dispersed throughout 'states' in central Europe
Previous National Status of Germans-
Most Powerful of all German
- Landowning family; appointed to several high positions
- As a foreign diplomat Learned from the other powerful nations; Germans needed to UNIFY
- Ruled with an "Iron Fist"
Unification Means WAR!
Under Bismarck, Prussia successfully acquired land from:
Bismarck as Kaiser
- He encouraged strong pride in German-people who thus rallied behind Prussia's efforts.
"BLOOD and IRON"
* Some European groups used 'NATIONALISM' to:
Separate from control
- Under Hapsburg rule, The Austrian Empire controlled:
Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Germans, etc.
- Under the Ottoman Turks, they controlled:
"Balkans": Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, etc.