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Domestic Violence/Intimate Partner Violence: The Latina/Immi

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Rubi Zamora

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Domestic Violence/Intimate Partner Violence: The Latina/Immi

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: The Latina Immigrant Experience
Latinas and DV: Prevalence
What kinds of thoughts come up as you think of the Latina and/or immigrant experience as it pertains to DV or IPV?

What are some common misconceptions and stereotypes about Latinas and/or immigrant women who are in abusive relationships ?

How do these differ from common misconceptions of women struggling with this issue in other ethnic minority or majority populations? For Non-immigrant women or those with "legal" status?

What is your perception of Latino males as perpetrators? Of White males as perpetrators to women of color and/or immigrant women?


SW Implications: Intervention and Social Change
Curriculum Revisions

Integrate domestic/intimate partner violence in required foundation classes.
Teach universal screening and interviewing techniques.
Feminist analysis of violence - emphasis on both micro/macro levels.
Advocate on an individual and institutional level.
Encourage cultural competency
Rubi Zamora
Analise Lopez
Jenny Blenko
Evelia Ilarraz
Social Work Practice and Domestic Violence
Columbia School of Social Work
4/15/14

Cultural Awareness
Give clarity to the scope of the issue in Latino communities

Bring light to how DV/IPV impacts Latina women as individuals and as members in their communities; how their experiences are unique from other victims/survivors of DV in the U.S
Become more culturally aware of and challenge ill-informed beliefs and stereotypes about Latina women and Latino men, immigrant women and men AND any notion that culture in and of itself is the sole determinant for higher incidences of DV/IPV in this population...what are the larger systems impacting this issue?
Better inform ourselves of the Social Work implications to enhance service provision in our future work with this social issue and for this community
Further Social Change Efforts and EMPOWER Latinas, immigrant women, and greater populations of women of color
Think about...
Layers of "Self"-Identity
Nationality, ethnicity, race, language, native/indigenous
Origin vs. Descent
Generation
Latina
Female of Latin-American origin or ancestry (Includes Hispanas-> If they self-identify as such)
Hispana
Female of Spanish origin or ancestry (Includes Latinas--> If they self-identify as such)
Chicana (1971)
Female of Mexican origin or descent (also Mexican-American)
___________-Americana
-Female who identifies as both from their country/culture of origin/ancestry AND American
-North, Central, South -American
Caribeña
-Female of Caribbean origin or ancestry (includes Latina, Hispana, Americana->If they identify as such)
Identify by native tribe or community, nationality, etc.
Preference, choice, self-define

*Not an exhaustive list!
Mexicana
Puerto Riqueña
Cubana
Dominicana
Salvadoreña
Guatemalteca
Hondureña
Argentina
Belizean
Haitian
Boliviana
Nicaraguense
Brasilera
Chilena
Colombiana
Costarricense
Equatoriana
Española
Panameña
Paraguaya
Peruana
Uruguaya
Venezolana
Nationality
I am...
Race/Ethinicity
Black Hispanic/Latino
White Hispanic/Latino
Asian Hispanic/Latino
Culturally Competent Framework
Gender Roles/ Latina Sexuality
Religion
Strengths
Stories of Migration and DV
Family Values and Traditional Customs
Emigration and Immigration
Emmigrate vs. Immigrate

[Authorized immigrant=Legal Resident=Naturalized citizen] VS.

[Unauthorized immigrant=undocumented immigrant="illegal" immigrant]
http://www.pewhispanic.org/
These six states were home to 60% of unauthorized immigrants in 2012.
Unauthorized immigrants made up 28% of all U.S. immigrants in 2012, down from 30% in 2007.
"Illegal" Label/Internalized Opression:
stigma
shame
risk
socioeconomic status
isolation
1. Mexicans- 33,539,000
2. Puerto Ricans-4,916,000
3. Salvadorans-1,952,000
4. Cubans-1,889,000
5. Dominicans-1,528,000
6. Guatemalans-1,216,000
7. Colombians-989,000
8. Spaniards-707,000
9. Hondurans-702,000
10. Ecuadorians-645,000
11. Peruvians-556,000
12. Nicaraguans-395,000
13. Venezuelans-259,000
14. Argentineans-242,000

2011 Hispanic Origin Profiles
The 14 largest U.S. Hispanic groups by origin (based on self-described race or ethnicity)

U.S. Hispanic Population -- 51,927,000

IPV and HIV

High risk associated with IPV and HIV
Women in the study reported history of STIs
Women are less likely to ask their partner to use condoms
Partners are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior (e.g. intravenous drug use, sexual affairs outside the marriage, etc.)
Wu, El-Bassel, Wittie, Gilbert, and Chang (2003); Source: cdc.gov
Act of Violence Comparison Between Hispanics and Whites
Source: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center. Data from 2000.
In 2010, Latinas accounted for 15% of new infections
Differences Among Latino Groups
Puerto Rican women were less likely to report IPV compared to Mexicans, Dominicans, and other women from a Latino background
Caribbean-born Latinas report higher sexual violence compared to Mexican born Latinas (Cavanaugh et al., 2013)
Women born in another country are more likely to be killed than those born in the U.S.
A significant number of women report an increase in partner violence after moving to the U.S.
What is
familismo
?
"Attachements, reciprocity and loyalty to family members beyond the boundaries of the nuclear family."
Positives
Can be a protective factor. Parents and in-laws are involved in family matters.
Negatives
Staying together as a family is stressed which creates a barrier to leaving the abusive relationship.
Source: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center
Source: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center; Cavanaugh et. al., 2013
Different Views

Underrepresentation and Non-Inclusion in National DV Surveys
1995- National Crime Victimization Survey-Began 1972 (Bureau of Justice)

2000-National Violence Against Women Survey-Began 1995 (National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

2014-National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey-Began 2010 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC)
“reliable information on minority women’s experiences of violence is still lacking” - National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000)
Immigrant-Specific Stressors
Multiple trauma- Past or current (childhood, environmental, political in home countries)
Trauma of migration, settlement, acculturative stress
Acculturation- Effects on relationship dynamics (Gender role shifts/reversals, women labor force participation)
Social isolation-lack of support networks, from contact with family members
Limited host language skills
"Latinas are usually grouped into a Hispanic category, regardless of citizenship or legal status, and measurements have not accounted for non-citizen women who experience violence" -(Menjivar and Salcido, 2002)
Immigrant Women and The Catholic Church
Immigrant women are more likely to seek
informal support systems (e.g. church, family members, etc.)

vs.

formal support systems (e.g. criminal justice system, social agencies, etc.
Many immigrant women reach out to the church for support
Women reported mixed experiences of clegy assistance and barriers in support
Growing rates of ownership
Source: Fuchsel, 2012
Growing rates of education
College graduation rates for Latina women have increased faster than for any other group of women
Center for American Progress, 2013
"Latinas are a growing and influential constituency in the United States. The Latina share of the female population in the United States will increase from 16.4 percent today to 25.7 percent in 2050. Latinas are making significant strides in education, participation, health, and other areas, but there is a long way to go to fully close racial and ethnic disparities." -Center for American Progress, 2013
What is the Catholic Church doing?
When I Call for Help: A Pastoral Response to Domestic Violence Against Women
Ownership among Latina entrepreneurs has increased dramatically over the past 15 years
In 2011, 788,000 Latinas ran their own businesses—a 46 percent increase over five years
From 1996 to 2010, the number of Latina elected officials increased by 105%
Latina state legislators represent 22 states
Speaking the Unspeakable: A Pastoral Letter of Domestic Violence by Rev. Ricardo Ramirez, C.S.B. Bishop of Las Cruces
Growing rates of political participation
Center for American Progress, 2013
Center for American Progress, 2013
Perpetrating Religious Views
Genesis: Eve blamed for seducing and making Adam sin
"Till death do us part"
"For better or for worse"
Methods of Clinical Practice

Motivational Interviewing
Cognitive Behavoiral Therapy
Asela's Story
Resilience
1. The power or ability to return to the original form, position, etc., after being bent, compressed, or stretched; elasticity.
2. The ability to recover readily from illness, adversity, or the like; buoyancy.
dictionary.com
Personal strength
Trained to take care of those around them
Intense strength, responsibility, and loyalty,
Expert builders of family and community networks
Domestic goddess or hopeless homemaker?
Changing roles for Latinas in American society
Hold various roles (e.g. breadwinner, mother, etc.)
Traditional Roles
Homemaker
The needs of the husband and children come first
Respeto
Context:
Legal Status:
Culture:
Manifestation of gender roles in a new country with different gender roles
Lack of access to dignified jobs, uncertain legal statuses, changes in economic status
Experiences with authorities in home country
Acess to services- healthcare, resources, mental health
Psychological effects of negative "immigrant" or "illegal identities
Attaining citizenship
Responsibilities to family in country of origin
Threat of removal
Additional References:

Frías, S. M., & Angel, R. J. (2012). Beyond Borders Comparative Quantitative Research on Partner Violence in the United States and Mexico. Violence against women, 18(1), 5-29.

Galanti, G. A. (2003). The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: An overview. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(3), 180-185.

Menjívar, C., & Salcido, O. (2002). Immigrant women and domestic violence common experiences in different countries. Gender & Society, 16(6), 898-920.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Intimate Partner Violence in the United States- 2010.
Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/cdc_nisvs_ipv_report_2013_v17 _single_a.pdf

National Coalition Against Violence. (2005). About the coalition against violence: mission statement. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.ncadv.org
aboutus.php.

National Institute of Justice, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against
women (NCJ Publication No. 183781). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/183781.pdf

Raj, A., & Silverman, J. (2002). Violence against immigrant women the roles of culture, context, and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence
against women, 8(3), 367-398.

Rivera, J. (1994). Domestic violence against Latinas by Latino males: An analysis of race, national origin, and gender differentials. BC third world LJ, 14, 231.

Sokoloff, N. J., & Dupont, I. (2005). Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and
gender challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities. Violence against women, 11(1), 38-64.

Vandello, J. A., & Cohen, D. (2003). Male honor and female fidelity: implicit cultural scripts that perpetuate domestic violence. Journal of personality and social
psychology, 84(5), 997.

Patriarchy, Machismo, Marianismo
Males- Work hard, provide, protect, decision-maker
Machismo- Risk taking and subjugation of women to prove masculinity; dominant and sexually aggressive
Females- Wives, mothers, daughters
Marianismo-"self-sacrificing", passive
Innocent virgins AND Sexy Vixens
Sexually submissive, docile + Sensual, passionate, sexually responsive
Rites of Passage
Presents girls to society as ready for marriage and motherhood
Signifies to community she is ready for suitors
Cements role of wife and mother
Full transcript