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IB Biology Chapter 5 - Ecology and Evolution
Transcript of IB Biology Chapter 5 - Ecology and Evolution
and interacting with each other in an area a community and its abiotic environment the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment Heterotroph organisms that s-------e their o-----c molecules from simple inorganic substances organisms that obtain organic m-------s from other o-------s Detrivores Saprotrophs an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed an organism that ingests non-living organic matter an organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion 5.1.4 DESCRIBE A food chain shows the direction of flow from one species to another. For example, an arrow from A to B means that A is by B and therefore indicates the direction of the flow. = energy =eaten 5.1.5 DESCRIBE A is a diagram that shows all the feeding relationships in a community with arrows which show the direction of the energy flow. =food web 5.1.6 DEFINE the trophic level of an organism is its in the food chain. primary consumers, secondary consumers and tertiary consumers are of trophic levels. producers examples position 5.1.7 DEDUCE producers primary tertiary secondary 5.1.8 CONSTRUCT 5.1.9 STATE ? is the initial energy source for almost all communites? LIGHT! 5.1.10 EXPLAIN the energy flow in a food chain Energy flows from producers to primary consumers, to secondary consumers, to tertiary consumers...
Energy is lost between ? in the form of heat through cell respiration, faeces, tissue loss and ?.
Some of this lost energy is used by detritivores and saprotrophs. These in turn also lose energy in the form of heat through ?. Energy flows from producers to primary consumers, to secondary consumers, to tertiary consumers...
Energy is lost between trophic levels in the form of heat through cell respiration, faeces, tissue loss and death.
Some of this lost energy is used by detritivores and saprotrophs. These in turn also lose energy in the form of heat through cell respiration. 5.1.10 EXPLAIN the energy flow in a food chain 5.1.11 STATE energy transformations are never 100% efficient 5.1.12 EXPLAIN the reasons for the shape of an energy pyramid Because energy is lost, each level is always ? than before.
Organisms cannot create energy, they can only transfer it inefficiently. ? = smaller. 5.1.13 EXPLAIN that energy enters and leaves ecosystems but nutrients must be recycled. energy enters in form of light,majority is lost as heat (the word lost is used as organisms cannot recycle heat energy). Once energy is lost as heat it cannot be collected back and used as an energy source.
tonnes of space dust falls upon the earth every year but not enough to meet the mineral requirements of the biosphere, therefore, nutrients must be recycled. 5.1.14 STATE saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (a.k.a ?) recycle nutrients ? = decomposers 5.2.1 DRAW AND LABEL a diagram of the carbon cycle to show the processes involved. 5.2.2 ANALYSE the changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical records. humans have produced increasing quantities of carbon dioxide since 1800's. Up and down pattern on a graph caused by seasonal fluctuations. 5.2.3 EXPLAIN the relationship between rises in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen and the enhanced greenhouse effect. greenhouse effect is natural, caused by atmosphere's ability to retain ?.
gases produced by human activity which retain heat the most are:
-oxides of nitrogen
concentration of these in atmosphere is naturally ? which normally prevents too much heat retention.
increased human population = increased ?, ? and ?
all three have high potential of absorbing heat.
(incoming shorter wave radiation & re-radiated longer-wave radiation.) ? = heat
? = low
? = CO2, nitrous oxide and methane