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General Geography

Unit 1
by

Geoff Cleveland

on 6 October 2015

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Transcript of General Geography

Learning to use maps
Different Types
of Maps
Compass Rose -- A tool that shows the four main directions on a map
North
South
East
West
Cardinal Directions
Symbols -- pictures on a map to show certain things.
Map Key (aka a legend) -- a list of words or phrases or colors -- usually within a box in the corner of the map -- that explains the symbols that are found on the map it self
Map -- A drawing or picture showing selected features of a map
Problem
You have to describe to someone where Minneapolis is without using a map or a picture.
Turn to someone next to you and come up with a solution
Next...

Turn to your partner and come up with as many ways in which we use directions and compass points in our everyday lives
Example: I grew up on Scarson Court North
Never
Eat
Shredded
Wheat
Nobody
Enjoys
Stinging
Wasps
With your partner, come up with your own way of memorizing the Cardinal Directions
Next: Draw a compass rose on your paper and try to figure out what the points are between the 4 major cardinal directions
CONTINENTS
OCEANS
Equator
Prime Meridian
Map Scales
Ratio of distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground
Ready for some more Geography!?
Not Again!
Become a Geography Bee All-Star!
LANDMASS GEOGRAPHY
PENINSULA
Lets keep going with some more landforms shall we? Oh with a side of bodies of water too!
BAY
THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
1. LOCATION LOCATION LOCATION!
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
2. PLACE
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
3. HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS
UNITED STATES GEOGRAPHY
United States is on the continent of North America
yo bro you are giving me peninsula overload right now
Peninsula: Land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
CAPE
Ummm not that kind of cape
CAPE: A point or head of land mass projecting into a body of water
A peninsula is connected to a land mass by a Isthmus while a cape is not...we should probably define isthmus as well
ISTHMUS
Isthmus: A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas (isthmus' usually have water on each side)
Get it? Got it? Good?
MOUNTAIN
Mountain: large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak
VALLEY: The low area between ranges of mountains
PLAINS
Hi Buffy!
Plain: A flat region
ISLAND
ISLAND: Landmass surrounded by water on all sides
Bay: Body of water that is partly enclosed by land
Canyon
you so cray cray
Canyon: Deep valley that is often carved from the earth by a river
Channel
Channel: Body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
BUTTE
you pronounce it like "beaut"
Butte: Flat topped rock or hill formation with steep sides (smaller than a mesa and a plateau)
TRIBUTARY
Tributary: A stream or river that flows into a larger river
Estuary
Estuary: Where a river meets the sea or Ocean
In land, it is the world's third largest country
Russia is the largest
Canada is the second largest
The United States is bordered by three large bodies of water
Pacific Ocean to the west (The Earth's largest ocean)
Atlantic Ocean to the east (Second largest ocean
Gulf of Mexico lies to the southeast
GULF: A large area of ocean extending into land / a large area of ocean partially surrounded by land
The United States have mountain ranges that run from north to south in North America
In the west, the Rocky Mountains stretch about 3,000 miles from Alaska, through Canada, to New Mexico
The Rockies are the largest mountain range in the west
The Appalachian Mountains are the largest range in the east
They extend 1,500 miles from Quebec Canada to Alabama
The Sierra Nevada Mountains are in the far west and are about 400 miles long
The Sierra Nevada Mountains include Mount Whitney (the tallest peak in the Continental United States)
The tallest peak in North America is Mount McKinley in Alaska
The Great Plains
They reach from Canada to Texas
At one point they were huge natural grasslands where buffalo roamed
Much of the world's wheat is grown throughout the Great Plains
Gulf Coastal Plain
Located in the southeast
Low lands that experience flooding but the land is ideal for farming
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Largest river in the United States
Source of the River is Lake Itasca in Minnesota
Runs 2,350 miles before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico
The Mississippi's two biggest tributaries are the Ohio and Missouri Rivers
St. Lawrence River
Located in the northeastern United States
Flows from Lake Ontario into the Atlantic Ocean
Forms the border between the United States and Canada
GREAT LAKES
Collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada-United States border
Consists of: Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario
The Great Lakes form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface and volume
Rio Grande River
Forms much of the border between the U.S. and Mexico
GEOGRAPHY BEE 2013
Are you growing sick of Geography yet?
Don't worry;you will have more of it throughout the year.oh and you have a class in high school called... Drum Roll Please
Lets watch a video that shows us how important Geography really is
Don't worry if you don't know some of these. Just do me a favor and don't grow up to be like this
Let's Continue learning about GEOGRAPHY!
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
4. MOVEMENT
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
5. REGIONS
Geography Includes the following:
Studying countries, capitals, rivers, mountains, etc
Study of people and culture
Study of Resources
People's relationship with their environment
People's relationship with other people and nations
Every point on Earth has an
ABSOLUTE
or
EXACT
location that can be pinpointed using latitude and longitude or a street address
Relative Location
: Helps us understand how places are related and connected to other places
Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance from one place to another
i.e. Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block
CASE STUDY
MIAMI, FL
Miami's ABSOLUTE location is 25.8 degrees north latitude and 80.3 degrees west longitude
Miami's relative location:
Southeastern part of North America
North of South America and the Caribbean
Southeast part of Florida
GET IT? GOT IT? GOOD!?
GEOGRAPHY
Let me remind you that all I ask is that you take geography serious so that you don't end up like this:
Place answers
"what is it like there?"
and
"what kind of place is it?"
Every place has physical and human characteristics that distinguish it from other places
Physical Characteristics
Include landforms, bodies of water, climate, soils, natural vegetation and animal life
AKA The natural environment
Human Characteristics
Ethnic composition, customs, beliefs, language, economy, architecture
How many people live, work, and visit a place
CASE STUDY
MIAMI
Known for its warm tropical climate and its proximity to the ocean
Multiethnic city with cultural identity derived from a mix of many cultures
Together; physical and human characteristics provide the understanding of the relationship that people have with their physical environment
Place characteristics help us answer the question: What is it like?
How people respond to and modify their environment...aka how do humans and the environment affect each other?
Human interaction with the environment can produce both Positive and negative effects
Positive: Humans Planting trees
Negative: Humans causing Pollution
CASE STUDY
HOOVER DAM
Humans interact with other humans both near and far
We communicate with one another, travel to different places, rely on exports
The theme of movement helps us understand how we are connected, how we are dependent, and gives us an understanding of other regions and cultures
It answers the question
"How are people, goods, and ideas move from place to place"
Mr. Ping vs. "Idiot Abroad"
CASE STUDY
MIAMI
Miami and Latin America transport goods because it their economies depend upon it
Miami also receives new immigrants from Latin America
The Sharing of ideas and the movement of people and goods helps us answer the question "How and why are places related to each other?"
Basic definition:
An area of the earth's surface that is defined by certain unifying characteristics
How are regions similar to and different from other places?
These characteristics can be...
Physical (tropical, Mountainous, etc)
Cultural (french speaking, Buddhist)
Political (United States, Midwest, etc)
The study of regions helps us answer the question: "How are areas similar and different?"
Okay get ready to take notes on all the countries of the world!!!
Are you LOVING Geography yet?
Loving it more than this 4-year old?
And once again...I'm not asking for Geography experts but COME ON!!!
HUH?
JK!
MAP SCALES (Continued)
Don't have a ruler to measure a map scale? No problem! Try this

Grab a piece of paper and put the edge the paper between the two points you wish to measure
Make a mark on the paper at each point
Then put the piece of paper on the map scale with one mark at zero and take note of where the other point falls on the scale!
If the scale isn't long enough between the two points to be measured, then you will just have to keep duplicating the scale!
BASIC MAP PARTS
Maps have guided humans through the world for almost all of time...
They are considered one of the most long lasting and simplest forms of communication!
Maps are representations and simplifications of the earths surface. Each map is made with a specific purpose in mind and is intended to show something
In order to communicate, every map must include 6 essential components... We call these components
TODALS
T:
Title (What does the Map Show)
O:
Orientation (Compass Rose)
D:
Date (when was the map created?) Show changes over time)
A:
Author (who made the map?)
L:
Legend (Key) What do the symbols or colors on the map represent?
S:
Scale (What size area of the earth is represented on the map?)
When in doubt...just call
MR.

HELP
!
M
- Movement
R
- Region
HE
- Human Environment Interaction
L
- Location
P
- Place
- We depend on it
EX: People depend on the Mississippi River for water and transportation
- We modify it
EX: People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort

- We adapt to it
EX: We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats)
Human Movement
Trucks, Trains, Planes, etc
Information movement
Phones, computer, mail
Idea movement
How do fads move from place to place?
TV, radio, magazines
Full transcript