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Sport Nutrition BTEC National sport

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rebecca agar

on 3 November 2011

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Transcript of Sport Nutrition BTEC National sport

Sport Nutrition
Nutrition - The means by which your body takes in energy and nutrients in food
to sustain growth and development, and to keep us alive and healthy.
Nutrition: macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats); micronutrients (vitamins, minerals); fibre;
nutritional requirements (essential and non-essential); common terminology (Recommended Daily
Allowance, Optimum Level, Safe Intake, Estimated Average Requirements, standard abbreviations – RDA,
Foods contain the following nutrients:







Required in large amounts on a daily basis.
Energy-providing nutrients
Simple carbohydrates - Provide a quick energy source.

Complex carbohydrates - Are broken down slowly to release energy
over longer periods.
These should form most of your carbohydrate intake.

* Carbs. provide 4kcal of energy per gram
Glucose that is not used directly by cells is
stored as glycogen in the muscles (80%) or liver (approx 20%).

Excess Carbohydrate is converted to fat and stored in your body's
Referred to as fat tissue, a type of connective tissue that serves as the body's most abundant energy reserve.
Essential to maintaining optimal health and physical performance.

-Build and repair tissue.

- Secondary source of energy when carbohydrate and fat stores are limited, e.g. end of marathon.

* Proteins provide 4kcal of energy per gram
Amino Acids - Building blocks of proteins.
20 amino acids

* 8 essential amino acids - Body unable to make so necessary in diet.

* Remaining are non-essential - Body is able to synthesise these if all essential amino acids are present.
- Contain all
- Lack in one
or more
Meat, poultry,
offal, eggs, milk,
cheese, yoghurt,
Cereals, bread, rice,
pasta, noodles, peas,
pulses, beans, lentils,
nuts, seeds
Fat is:

- Concentrated form of energy and the largest source
- Protect and cushion vital organs
- Insulator
- Structural material for cells

*Provide 9kcal of energy per gram (double carbs. and protein)

*Triglycerides form basic components of fats.

Triglycerides are formed from one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
Two types of fat:

* Saturated
- carbons associated with two hydrogen
- Mostly solid at room temperature (except palm and coconut oil)

* Unsaturated
- One or more carbons without hydrogen
- Usually liquid
- Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
Both types of fat are made from chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen attached to them.

The difference is that the unsaturated fatty acids have some double bones, indicted by the = sign, which makes the acid bend in shape.

It’s this bend that means that in the unsaturated fat not as many hydrogen atoms can attach to the carbon ones which makes it less saturated with hydrogen atoms, this is why it’s given the name unsaturated.

Shape affects the function so this is how our body’s identify what type of fat we’ve ingested.
Required in smaller amounts

- Vital
- Non calorific

"Perform specific metabolic functions and prevent particular deficiency diseases"

* Regulating metabolic processes
* Support growth and the immune and nervous system functions
* Some produce hormones

Mostly supplied in diet except Vitamin D (sunlight) and Vitamin K (bacteria in large intestine)
Dietary Reference Value (DRVs) - set by UK department of health - set nutrient values for diff. groups of people.

Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) - should meet needs of 97% of population.

Large amounts of some vitamins can be harmful to health, particularly fat soluble vitamins as these can be stored in the body.

Only if you are deficient should large amounts be required.
*non calorific
* essential to life/health

* form important components of body e.g. bone, connective tissue, enzymes and hormones.
* Roles in nerve function & muscle contraction
* Regulate fluid balance

Two types
- macrominerals - e.g. calcium - large amounts required (several hundred milligrams per day)

- Trace elements - e.g. copper and selenium - small quantitites (micrograms per day)

Levels controlled by absorption and excretion to prevent excessive build up. Some competition for absorption,
esp iron, zinc and copper.
Fibre = complex carb

Non starch polysaccharide = dietary fibre
(forms main component of plant cell walls)

* Resist digestion by the stomach & small intestine & provide bulk, aiding transit of food through the digestive system.

Fibre also prevents some diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, heart disease and IBS.

Examples - whole grain cereals, nuts, pulses, fruit and veg.
Nutritional Requirements
Amount of each nutrient you need
Factors effecting amount = Age, gender, level of fitness, health
* Essential and non essential carbohydrates, protein and fat
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