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ISR

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Chris Hutton

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of ISR

Commander Input
Staff Input
Requirements
Development

Develop Requirements
Planning Tools

Tasking and Directing
Information Collection

Assess Execution of
Tactical Tasks

Update Requirements
Planning Tools

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
Information Collection, an Army Process
Action:
Synchronize the tools used in the Planning Requirements and Assessing Collection process.


Conditions:
Given FM 3-55, ATTP 2-01, ADP 2-0, ADP 3-0, ADP 5-0, FM 5-0, JP 2-0, JP 2-01, a virtual DCGS-A BAL, and student handouts.


Standards:
Synchronize the tools used in the Planning Requirements and Assessing Collection process by completing the PEs, successfully answering the checks on learning, and identifying a minimum of seven (7) critical errors and inconsistencies to achieve a Satisfactory rating IAW the ISR Evaluation Sheet.

Safety Requirements:
None

Risk Assessment:
IV, E, Low

Environmental Considerations:
None

Evaluation:
The students will be evaluated on Planning Requirements and Assessing Collection process IAW with the ISR Evaluation Sheet.

Visualization
Situational Awareness
Situational Understanding
Approval of CCIRs
Intent
Commanders issue formal guidance at three specific points:

Initial guidance
Defines the area of operations
Develops the initial commander’s intent
Lists challenges and initial CCIRs

Commander’s planning guidance
Current CCIRs
Focus and tempo
Engagement criteria
Acceptable risk to assets

Final planning guidance
Any new CCIRs, including the LTIOV
Rehearsals
Commander's Guidance
The staff:

Prepares/updates running estimates

Evaluates organic assets:
Availability
Capability
Sustainability
Vulnerability

Develops requests for information

Develops requirements
Review Assets
Commander Input
Check on Learning
Q:
What is the importance of understanding the capability and limitations of an asset or sensor?
Q:
What is the benefit of having multiple assets collecting against a target or requirement?
Requirements Development
The Intelligence Staff:

Consolidates and validates requirements

Recommends appropriate tasking for organic assets to the operations staff

Submits requests for information to higher and lateral commands

Intelligence Requirement
Priority Intelligence Requirement (PIR)
a requirement for intelligence to fill a gap in the command’s knowledge or understanding of the operational environment or threat forces.
intelligence requirements for which a commander has an
anticipated
and
stated priority
in his task of planning and decision making.
Friendly Forces Information Requirement (FFIR)
Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI)
Identifies key pieces of information the commander needs to know about his own forces.
Establish what key pieces of friendly information to protect from enemy observation or awareness.
Requirements Development Process
PIR Quality
“Will the threat attack? If so, where, when, and in what strength?”
“What means will Sunni extremists utilize to disrupt the upcoming national elections?”
PIR Quality
Well-written PIRs meet the following criteria:
support a single planning task, decision, or action
ask only one question
focus on a specific fact, event, or activity
can be satisfied using available assets
generally do not ask yes or no questions
can not be completely answered by research or friendly reporting requirements
Check on Learning
Q:
What products could you use to identify gaps that may result in intelligence requirements?
Detailed and current IPB
Current intelligence running estimate
Current running estimates from other command post cells and staff elements
Enemy situation templates and course of action statements
Event templates and matrices

Develop Requirements Planning Tools
Develops requirement matrix
Develops indicators
Develops specific information requirements sets
Develops information collection plan
Develops collection synchronization matrix
Indicators
Items of information that reflect the
intention
or
capability
of an adversary to adopt or reject a course of action.
Remember This!
Characteristics of indicators:
Indicators prove or disprove a PIR
Indicators are statements, not questions
Indicators points toward threat vulnerabilities
Points toward the adoption or rejection by the threat of a particular activity
PIR:
What means will Sunni extremist utilize to disrupt the upcoming national elections?”
Indicator:
Insurgent intimidation to HNSF.
Remember This!
Remember This!
Example
Practical Exercise
Your mission is to conduct a PRANK on the 35M class. Each group must come up with three PIRs to ensure a successful prank. The PIRs should meet the criteria for a well-written PIR. You will have 20 minutes to construct your PIRs.
Specific Information Requirements (SIR)
Describes the task to the information collection asset. Can be written as a question or statement.
Remember This!
What to collect
Derived from indicators
Where to collect it
Named Area of Interest (NAI)
Targeted Area of Interest (TAI)
When and how long to collect
Specified start time and end time
Finalize each SIR by labeling it with an identifier that allows the intelligence officer to trace it back to the original intelligence requirement.
Check on Learning
Q:
Which statement is incorrect?
A. Indicators prove or disprove a SIR.
B. Indicators are not questions, they are statements.
C. Indicators are developed by analyst
D. Points toward threat vulnerabilities.
Q:
Fill in the blank: SIRs provide details on the _____, ______, and _____ to collect for information.
what
where
when
Practical Exercise
In your groups, you will now develop a SIR for each indicator you previously developed. SIRs should adhere to the guidelines for well-written SIRs. You will have 15 minutes to construct your SIRs.
Practical Exercise
In your groups, you will now develop two indicators for each PIR you previously developed. Ensure that your indicators meet the criteria for an indicator. You will have 15 minutes to develop your indicators.
Collection Synchronization Matrix
Balance
is planning/eliminating redundancy, ensuring an appropriate mix of collection assets and cueing collection and maneuver assets

Redundancy
involves the use of several assets with similar capabilities to cover the same NAI

Mixing
planning for complementary coverage by a combination of assets with differing capabilities

Cueing
involves the use of a sensor or asset to provide data that directs collection of another asset
Collection Synchronization Matrix
The Operations Staff:

Incorporates tasking into the plan and includes them in paragraph 3 of the base order or paragraph 3b of Annex L to the order

Develops information dissemination criteria

Issues orders
Annex L
The information collection annex clearly describes how information collection activities support the offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities operations throughout the conduct of the operations described in the base order.
Publish annex L to the OPORD that tasks assets (paragraph 3b) to begin the collection effort.
Request for collection should be of a specific capability or effect, not a specific asset or sensor.
Retasking
Dynamic Retasking
ability to effect changes in the mission of a collection asset while in the execution phase. It involves mission command elements actually stopping the ongoing collection and redirecting those assets to other targets.
Ad-hoc Retasking
ability to effect changes or make additions to information collection requirements of an asset after planning but before the execution cycle begins.
The intelligence Staff:

Receives inputs from commander and staff

Eliminates satisfied requirements

Develops and add new requirement

Transitions to the next operations
Check on Learning
Q:
Describe the process from PIR to collection task.
Develop intelligence requirements based on PIRs
Develop indicators for each PIR
Develop SIR from the indicators
Translate SIRs into Information Collection tasks
Q:
What are the three keys to Balance within a Collection Synchronization Matrix?
Summary
Intro to Information Collection
Unified ISR Considerations
Commander Input
Staff Input
Develop Requirements
Develop Planning Requirements Tools
Tasking and Directing Information Collection
Assess Execution of Tactical Tasks
Update Planning Requirements Tools
Agenda
Introduction to Information Collection
Unified ISR Considerations
Commander Input
Staff Input
Develop Requirements
Develop Planning Requirements Tools
Tasking and Directing Information Collection
Assess Execution of Tactical Tasks
Update Planning Requirements Tools

What is Information Collection?
... an activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and employment of sensors and assets as well as the processing, exploitation, and dissemination of systems in direct support of current and future operations. (FM 3-55)
Remember This!
Primary Tasks and Missions
The Army has four tasks or missions it primarily conducts as a part of the Information Collection process:
Reconnaissance
Surveillance
Security Operations
Intelligence Operations
Unified ISR Considerations
The Army conducts operations as part of a joint force. Current ISR operations are inherently joint, sometimes even down to the BCT or battalion level. Two key concepts impact how the Army conducts joint ISR in the joint operations area:
…principle of combined arms…The combination of diverse joint force capabilities generates combat power more potent than the sum of its parts.
Integration
Interdependence
…the purposeful reliance by one Service’s forces on another Service’s capabilities to maximize the complementary and reinforcing effects of both.
Unified ISR Considerations
Joint ISR Information Systems:

Planning Tool for Resource, Integration, Synchronization, and Management (PRISM)
Collection Management Mission Application
Unified Collections Operations Reporting Network (UNICORN)
Cross-Domain Enterprise All Source User Repository (CENTUAR)
DCGS-A ISR Synchronization Tool (IST; released in DCGS-A Hunte)
Information Collection supports operations via three tasks:
Plan requirements and assess collection
Task and direct collection
Execute collection
The Army defines reconnaissance operations as those missions undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographical, or geographical characteristics and the indigenous population of a particular area (FM 3-90).
Surveillance is the systematic observation of aerospace, surface, or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means (JP 3-0).
Security operations are those operations undertaken by a commander to provide early and accurate warning of enemy operations, to provide the force being protected with time and maneuver space within which to react to the enemy, and to develop the situation to allow the commander to effectively use the protected force (FM 3-90).
Intelligence operations align intelligence assets and resources against requirements to collect information and intelligence to inform the commander’s decisions.
Plan requirements and assess collection
Evaluating Collection Assets
Range
Day and night effectiveness
Technical characteristics
Reporting timeliness
Geolocation accuracy
Durability
Threat activity
Sustainability
Vulnerability
Performance history
Practical Exercise
You will be broken into groups and will research the capabilities and limitations of your assigned assets. 45 minutes will be allotted to conduct research. Each group will then be allotted 10 minutes to present their information to their peers.
Assess Execution
The Staff:

Monitors tactical situation
Maintains synchronization with operations
Screens reporting to ensure task completion
Correlates report to requirements
Provides feedback to assets
Cues assets to collection opportunities
Recommends retasking of assets
PIR 1:
What means will Sunni extremist utilize to disrupt the upcoming national elections?”
Indicator 1.1:
Insurgent intimidation to HNSF.
Example
SIR 1.1:
Will insurgents use assassinations, kidnappings, bribery, or religious propaganda against HNSF within NAI 1 between 280500 and 301800 May.
PIR 1:
What means will Sunni extremist utilize to disrupt the upcoming national elections?”
Indicator 1.1:
Insurgent intimidation to HNSF.
Example
SIR 1.1:
Will insurgents use assassinations, kidnappings, bribery, or religious propaganda against HNSF within NAI 1 between 280500 and 301800 May.
ISR Task:
Prophet PLT will report communications of assassinations, kidnappings, bribery, religious propaganda against HNSF in NAI 1 between 280500 and 301800 May. Specify times, locations, individuals targeted, insurgent names, and target method.
The intelligence and operations staffs work together to convert the SIRs into ISR tasks.

Translate a well written SIR into an effective ISR task by making a directive statement beginning with “report.”

Tailor the reporting criteria to the capabilities of the tasked ISR asset.
SFC Hutton, MI Academy, 1st BN (MI TASS), 122nd REGT (RTI)
UNCLASSIFIED

Title:
Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Information Collection, an Army Process

Version:
v1.2-REL

Author:
SFC Christopher Hutton
christopher.g.hutton.mil@mail.mil

MI Academy, 1st BN (MI TASS), 122nd REGT (RTI)

UNCLASSIFIED
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