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Native American Presentation
Transcript of Native American Presentation
Characteristics Native american
People Group Presentation Cherokee Navajo Struggles with Education System Off-reservation Schools Teaching Strategies Parental Involvement Strategies Elizabeth Spencer, Shannon Quintanilla, Elisha Johnson Current Status of Parental Involvement -The Cherokees called themselves “Ani Yunwiya” which means the “Principal People.” The name “Cherokee” was actually given to them by other tribes. It means, “people who speak another language.”
-Small pox killed nearly half of the Cherokee population.
-Cherokees were a more settled people. Their houses were made of large posts and basket-like walls (limber twigs)
-Grass, mud and clay were mixed together for mortar on the walls and the roofs
-Now: typical housing Housing History Appearance -Wore animal skins and leather as clothes
-Cherokee men shaved their hair or plucked it out except for a small patch on top.
-Women had long hair.
-Now: Commonwear Government -Each main town use to have its own system of government patterned after the national one.
-Clan membership was (and is) inherited from one’s mother and retained for life.
-Now: Tribal government consisting of a chief, vice chief, and 12 council members from the 7 communities known as “The Eastern Band of Cherokees”
(Wolf, Deer, Bird, Long hair, Blue, Paint, and Wild Potato). Religious
Beliefs -Believed in YOWA, the creator god who made the earth and left the sun and moon to govern the world.
Now: Christian missionaries among early settlers converted Cherokees.
-Many ancestral rituals, dances, ceremonies, and music were lost. Creation Housing Culture Beliefs Government Religion Call themselves “Diné”- the People. Received the name “Navajo” from Spaniards who came to the New World. The Navajo grew crops in fields that the Spanish called “Nabaju” which meant “great planted fields.” The word “Nabaju” became “Navajo” pronounced Navaho in English. -Mankind was formed from four tall gods with long bodies that appeared out of the earth and are known as “Yei,” the Holy Ones. Man was formed from white corn and woman was made from yellow corn.
-The Navajo were placed between four sacred mountains to live (in part of what is now Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). -The Navajo lived separately in scattered locations.
-Their houses were forked-stick hogans, built of supporting poles and covered in mud.
-Most Navajos have brick houses and live in villages on the Navajo reservation. Now and then:
-Weaving was and is very important to the Navajo women. They are taught by their mothers and grandmothers how to spin wool and cotton into yarn and to dye fabric using natural colors.
-Women learned to weave from Spider Woman and continue to make rugs and blankets.
-Navajo men used to take care of horses and sheep, but now they make jewelry and work in gas and coal companies on the reservation.
-Children go to schools in which Navajo history and language are taught so that the children will know their tribal traditions. -The Navajos believe that all people must live in harmony with the earth. If the earth is taken care of, it will always be there to provide for the people.
-The loom is said to connect the Navajo to their mothers and to their land, Diné Bekayah (Navajoland). Within the yarns of each rug is woven a family story.
-When asked why they weave, they say, “That is what we do, that is who we are.”
-Long hair is equivalent to respect and knowledge.
-Hair gives wisdom and should not be touched.
-Jewelry protects them and is the way that the gods recognize their people. I weave in harmony.
With the Earth I weave.
The strings are like rain
The rain touches my fingers.
There is beauty in my rug.
There is beauty all around me.
The plants speak to me
Mother Earth colors my rug.
I weave in harmony.
-One of the Songs of Weaving -Because the Navajo lived so far apart, they had no single tribal leader. Each family group had a local headman, but he had no power over families. Men were protectors and would band together to defend their families.
Now: The Navajos elect a president to lead a central tribal government, which makes decisions for the whole tribe, but the people continue to belong to clans. -The Navajos believe in the Yei, the Holy Ones. The Yei are attracted by ritual songs, prayers, stories, and paintings.
-Navajos believe that if the Holy Ones are pleased with the ceremonies they perform, they will “set things right” and restore balance. Different dress: warm/cold climates
Different appearance: tall/short, light (forests) /dark (plains)
Different hair: braided, loose, rolls over ears, greased
Different moccasins/trimmings. Each tribe had a design
-South: Adobe houses in South (brick, clay, straw, ashes, water)
-Florida: Houses of grass and leaves over frame of branches
-Plains: Iroquois Long House. No windows. 20 families. Wide strips of bark
-Plains: Teepees from 20 poles and 20 buffalo skins (smoke hole)
-North: Summer and winter houses
Different ways of obtaining food: hunter/gatherer or farmers/livestock
Different foods depending on region:
-fish, insects, buffalo, deer, rabbit, turkey, bear, squirrel, birds, wild berries, roots, corn, potatos, squash, beans, wild rice, peas, maple sugar, herbs.
-Obtained salt from ground (rock salt), salt water springs, salt lakes, and the ocean. History Cultural Values Student
Struggles In the early 19th c. the U.S. government removed 67 tribes and placed them on “Indian Territory.” -Promote understanding and respect individual differences
-Value quietness and silence (do not talk over another)
-Do not hurry
-Value patience: “All things will unfold in time”
-Time is flexible and NOT structured
-Everything done has an immediate purpose
-Present-oriented: “focus on being rather than becoming”
-Value mutualism instead of personal gain -racism/discrimination, identity issues, transgenerational trauma, poverty/lower income levels, depression, suicide, anxiety, substance abuse, and leaving school before completion Statistics 1988 Statistics 2008 Problems Associated with School Failure •10% of Native Americans are not enrolled in schools
•75% of Native Americans are at least one grade behind
•11% of Native American Sophomores in SPED
•7% of Hispanic Sophomores in SPED
•9% African American Sophomores in SPED
•35.5% of Native Americans drop-out
•27.9% of Hispanics drop-out
•22.2% of African Americans drop-out
–14.6% Native Americans
–9.9% African Americans
–4.4% Pacific Islander
Original Off-Reservation Schools Disadvantages Mainstream Classrooms Communication Problems Other Disadvantages •Researchers have found that there are some patterns that are more likely to emerge in Native American learning styles; but, there will be very significant diversity among individuals’ learning styles from each culture. •Teaching strategies are strategies where a particular learning style is emphasized.
Teaching styles or strategies are the mirror images, or complements, to learning styles. Matching Teaching Styles with Students' Sociolinguistic Patterns of Thinking... Teaching strategies focused on N.A.s' cognitive learning styles Visual Learners Need... Motivation Instructional conversation
This is a dialog between the teacher and the learner in which students' prior knowledge and experiences are woven together with new material to build higher understanding
Teachers should focus on linking new concepts to the children’s world outside school Small group tasks
Teachers should implement more small group tasks because research has proven that language development is greatly enhanced by open discussion Wait-time
Teachers should extend wait time following students' response
- Research has shown this correlates to the length of a students' response as well as to the amount of student to student interactions.
-Teachers need to be consistent and organized enough so that their teaching styles become familiar to the Native American students
-Use teaching styles that reflect their students' stronger learning styles
-Practice and review needs to take place where the risk of embarrassment from failure is very low
-Feedback on success should be given immediately
-Teachers should spend twice as long on the introduction and overview to a topic
-Make sure this is done before they understand the details of the concept or tasks
-Discussions should focus on overarching themes -Activities that have students producing something such as a work of art, solving a problem, or making a plan
-More frequent and effective uses of imagery
-Content associated and delivered through visual models
The ‘hamburger’ model for learning to write paragraphs
**Research shows that presenting information that includes text and illustration rather than information with just text improves performance -Teachers should focus on introducing more culturally relevant materials in school curriculum “There is growing evidence that instruction for both Native and non-Native students that includes observational and collaborative activities, and in which information is presented holistically and with visuals, produces gains in student achievement” (Hilberg 5-6). Key Issues for Native Parents
Attitudes of teachers and other staff
School building conditions
Alienation of students and parents from school
Misunderstanding by the school of extended family dynamics
Scarcity and cultural isolation of urban American Indians -Concept: Word root construction
Teachers used a think-aloud procedure to model the strategy followed by guided practice and informal collaboration
Students created a word graph for each word consisting of the root, its definition, a personal association, and a visual of the association
-Students formed self-selected student-led groups in which they rotated to learning stations to engage in a variety of tasks. In addition to allowing self-direction, these activities emphasized visual, tactile, and auditory materials. Classroom Examples -Involve parents directly as home teachers or tutors
-Utilize parents in a support role (as counselors)
-Support roles that encourage learning
Project STEP (Systematic Training for Effective Parenting)
Parents meet with child at least twice a week to discuss the accomplishments of the past few days and do a reading-related activity
-Inform parents of student absenteeism -Send children to school
-Attend parent-teacher conferences
-Encourage completion of homework
-Do math games/ read to children
-Additional activities which impact school systems Parental Involvement/Support is... Now:
-Most Cherokee speak English, only the older generation speaks Cherokee and the language is dying out.
-Efforts are being made to revive the language through Native American schooling.
-Many of the Cherokee live on a Reservation called the Qualla Boundary in a small section of North Carolina. -Crossed from Asia into North America during the Ice Age by way of the Bering Strait. -When the White Man came, the Cherokees were pushed from their territory spanning what is now 8 States into Western North Carolina. -Sequoyah,
illiterate, developed a Cherokee
85 symbols .Before that, the Cherokees, like most American Indians, used pictures and oral tradition to record their tribal history.
-1838-39: the “Trail of Tears”: The Cherokees were forced to move to Oklahoma through bitter winter weather. About 4,000 Cherokees died. History Uniqueness (1) “Collective identity” of a shared fate of being forced to rebuild their communities and nations several times.
(2) A physical and metaphysical view of the universe that works simultaneously (ie: dreams and visions are part of reality).
-The metaphysical world is more powerful than the physical world.
-All of physical creation also has a life and a spirit.
(3) Devotion to family and community, de-emphasis on the “individual” person.
(4) Think in a circular pattern: oral tradition brings past into the present, prophecy brings future into the present. Time continuum.
(5) Believe in fate, certain things were meant to be, since all is in order according to the Creator. Other •Students may not be motivated because they are not interested in the materials that are being discussed or taught in the class Motivation •Native Americans tend to interact in groups. Social Organization •Reflective style of learning
-Students struggling with low self-confidence tend to not answer at all until they are absolutely sure the answer is correct
-Students who feel like low-achievers tend to guess answers sometimes impulsively with no reflection at all
*Learners prefer to see how to do things and then do them •Visual Style of Learning
- They take in their information visually
- Native American's way of life and values are based on looking at the world as a whole
- All of the parts are related and they depend on each other
- Typically, Native American children learn the overall idea or skill first
- The details are important but they are described later on •Teachers need to be aware...
They tend to speak more softly
• Look down to express politeness when addressed by a teacher
Students need extended wait time
•Case Study of Navajo mothers vs. European-American mothers Sociolinguistic Cognitive Learning Style Strengths The best learning style of the student depends on both the learning style strengths of the learner and the nature of the task. Some researchers believe that we use the term "learning style" because it suggests that differences in school achievement are not due to deficiencies; rather, they are due to variations in the way students learn. Learning Styles "As we start a new school year, Mr. Smith. I just want you to know that I'm an Abstract Sequential learner and trust that you'll conduct yourself accordingly!" •To determine what teaching styles to use: o Parent attitudes and behavior
o Student achievement
o Student attendance
o Student motivation
o Student self-esteem
o Student behavior
Effects of Parent Participation -Parent-teacher conferences
Have them on a regular basis- not only when students are having problems
One school offered a full tank of free gas to the parents to get them to the conference
-Involve Native community in setting discipline standards
school will in turn have Native parent support in disciplinary actions
Involve parents in policy and curriculum development as well
- Have Native culture awareness classes for parents Strategies for Increasing Native American Parent Involvement Mainstream Problems Off Reservation schools started as only a day time school but eventually became a boarding school. The students were taken far away from their family and Native Heritage. They were not allowed to speak in their native languge. Teachers described as authoritarian Schools gave some vocational training. The original off reservation schools had Native American students reporting that they were physically, psychologically and sexually abused by teachers. The Native Americans were required to give up every part of their heritage. There was a lack of respect for Native American culture. There were biased materials used in the classroom. Although vocational training was given, they could not get land from the government. They have low test scores. They are diagnosed as having emotional disorders. They are stripped of their culture. The students have no motivation. Teenagers have a lower self-esteem and the highest rate of suicide and drop-outs. They feel rejected, depressed, and withdrawn. In 2008, 92% of Native Americans attended a regular public school. The goal of the mainstream classrooms was to immerse the students in the American culture, language, and values. In 1869 off-reservation schools were established. Words do not always easily transfer between the two languages. Native Americans organize their communication differently than mainstream classrooms. Verbal Non-verbal The communication issues make mainstream teachers view Native Americans as silent and unintelligible. Native teachers help solve these communication problems. Low view of schooling for Native Americans. This view is passed on to the children. Some are completely resistant to literacy. Problems with transferring. Native Americans are more dependent on teachers. They are taught that their culture and life is inferior. They don’t feel accepted. Parents show little interest in the education of their children. Those who do want to be involved, do not know how to help. Parents feel uncomfortable in schools. -Teachers transcribed stories told by their Native American students and used them as reading texts -In 1863, U.S. soldiers killed Navajo soldiers, captured their women and children, and burned their fields and houses and thousands of sheep. When winter came, the remaining Navajos had no food or shelter, and they surrendered to the U.S. army.
-They were forced to march 300 miles that winter to another destination.
-The journey became known as “The Long Walk” because more than 300 Navajos died from exhaustion, disease, and shootings.
-When they were placed at the destined Fort an Indian tribe who was already there raided and killed the Navajo. In addition, the soil was poor and many Indians died of hunger. Finally, a smallpox epidemic broke out and killed 2,000.
-5 years later, the Navajo were finally allowed to return to their former homeland, between the four sacred mountains. Most Navajo remain there today living on the reservation.
1) Identify learning styles of individual learners
2) Match teaching styles to learning styles for learning tasks that will likely be difficult for your students.
This gives teachers a chance to work on their weaker teaching styles
3) Strengthen weaker styles by using them for easier learning tasks and in drill practice
Focus on 2 and 3 together (Matching styles and strengthening weaker styles)
This can be accomplished through practice-with-success
Practice-with-succes is where teachers use drill and practice that emphasizes weaker learning styles once the concept is learned
4) Teach learning style selection strategies
The goal is to have the students get to a point where they can select which learning style to use unconsciously the interaction between language and culture In one case study, the mothers were told to rate the children on a number of dimensions. Striking differences occured in the ratings of the following episode -- a European-American boy engaged in high levels of verbal and physical activity. The Navajo mothers believed the high verbal and physical activity were negative attributes (and therefore rated the boy negatively), whereas the European-American mothers believed them to be positive. By implication, it is possible that a European-American teacher might negatively evaluate the overall communicative and interactional styles of some Native American children.