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Transcript of Period 2
Q: How did the competition between European empires around the world affect relations among the various peoples in North America?
A: In order to trade fur, Dutch and French colonies allied and intermarried between Indian tribes; however, England opposed the idea of intermarriage between the lower class attracting females and males with same ideals to the English settlements establishing a social heirarchy. In the future, Native tribes tended to side with the French and oppose
the British. As European nations competed in
North America, their colonies focused on
gaining new sources of labor and on
producing and acquiring commodities that
were valued in Europe. The growth of an
Atlantic economy throughout the 18th
century created a shared labor market and a
wide exchange of New World and European
goods, as seen in the African slave trade and
the shipment of products from the Americas.
Politics and Power [POL]
Q: In what ways did the British government seek to exert control over its American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries?
A: Though the British government started with Salutory Neglect by unofficially letting their colonies be relatively independent by not enforcing trade laws, they quickly became much more strict.
The Navigation Acts, 1651-1696, was an English attempt assert its control over American trade. This series
of laws regulated colonial trade to
England’s benefit. They passed
many acts like this, such as the
Stamp Act and Molasses Act.
They mainly tried to control the
colonies' economy to benefit
themselves with a mercantilistic
Environment and Geography [ENV]
Q: How and why did the English North American colonies develop into distinct regions?
A: The English sought to establish colonies based on agriculture, sending large numbers of men and women to populate and organize their settlements. Religious settlements were also made such as the
Puritan New England while the agricultural
Chesapeake and North Carolina develop tobacco
and rice crops to fuel their economy. The middle
colonies partook in a cerea crop based economy,
and these agricultural regions were largely
dominanted and ran by indentured servants and
chattel slaves. As the competition between the
European giants at the time grew, growing mistrust
among the nations led to territorial disputes over
lands especially of use for planting cash crops such
as the desire for the sugarcane Carribeans.
Q: Why did various colonists go to the New World? How did the increasing integration of the Atlantic world affect the movement of peoples between its different regions?
A: The New World was a site for religious settlements as well as a resource site as the competition between Britain, Dutch, Spain, and France heightened to colonize. England had constructed a rigid racial heirarchy in which indentured servitude was eventually
replaced by chattel slavery due to the
encouragement of the African Slave Trade.
Other countries had the same view of social
heirarchy in initially establishing labor systems
such as Spain, but this time, white European
labors were largely worked by people reduced
to the lower class: Native Americans
and African slaves.
Work, Exchange, and Technology [WXT]
Q: How did distinct economic systems, most notably a slavery system based on African labor, develop in British North America? What was their effect on emerging cultural and regional differences?
A: The British–American system of slavery developed out of the economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British-controlled regions of the New World.
English colonies didn't have much intermarriage between English colonists and Natives or Africans, leading to a rigid social hierarchy.
Indentured servants were dying off and revolting, such as Bacon's Rebellion. Colonists wanted a more reliable labor system to take
advantage of their abundant land.
This harsh labor system led to the
development of slavery in America, which
created the abolition movement and, in great
part, led to the Civil War. Many violent
protests such as the Stono Rebellion also
happened because of the unforgiving
nature of slavery.
"wee shall finde that the God of Israell is among us, when tenn of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies, when hee shall make us a prayse and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantacions: the lord make it like that of New England: for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake"
The Quaker Ideal of Religious
Tolerance by William Penn
A Model of Christian Charity by John Whinthrop
Sermon by George Whitefield
Author: John Whinthrop
Place/time: On the Arbella before reaching New England in 1630
Prior Knowledge: As Puritans facing religious persecution in England, they fled to the colonies in hopes of creating a Puritan society and a safe haven.
Audience: Puritans on the Arbella
Reason: To encourage the Puritans to build a society that would be watched by the world.
The Main Idea: Puritan societies are brought about by ideas of unity, community, and hard work though it does not necessarily work out that way.
Significance: As one of the most famous historical documents, the City Upon a Hill illustrates an initial dream of Puritans that fails to be done.
The First Africans Were Brought to America
The first Africans were brought to America in 1619 when a Dutch ship, carrying 20 salves, arrived in Virginia. America's work force was dominated by Indentured Servants, this would soon change. The population of indentured servants slowly decreased after this date. African Slavery became to most prominent and cheap labor across the Americas.
House of Burgesses
Jamestown was the first permanent English colony in North America. This colony was established after the London Company sent 100 colonists to Virginia. This colony was established after the era known as the "starving time" and was successful with the help of John Smith. Smith provided the leadership and needed to make the colony successful.
Q: What were the chief similarities and differences among the development of English, Spanish, Dutch, and French colonies in America?
A: The French and Dutch used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.
The English sent large numbers of men and women to acquire land and help the new settlement grow, and they had hostile relationships with the Native Americans.
The Spanish focused largely on spreading Catholicisim, and were unique in their encomienda system, a labor system based on the work of Natives.
"The Question. What is most Fit, Easie and Safe at this Juncture of Affairs to be done, for Composing, at least Quieting Differences; for Allaying the Heat of Contrary Interests, and making them Subservient to the Interest of the Government, and Consistent with the Prosperity of the Kingdom?
I. An Inviolable and Impartial Maintenance of English Rights.
II. Our Superiours governing themselves upon a Balance, as near as may be, towards the several Religious Interests.
III. A sincere Promotion of General and Practical Religion...."
Author: William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania
Place/time: 7 years before the founding of Pennsylvania (1675) in an essay
Prior Knowledge: Penn became a Quaker at the age of 22; though he was born wealthy, he was attracted to the ideals of equality in the Quaker community. He was granted a charter by Charles II from a debt that was owed to his father which eventually became Pennsylvania.
Audience: To other Quakers and Society of Friends members
Reason: To offer agruments in favor of religious tolerance
The Main Idea: The Quaker religion should be an open and tolerant.
Significance: Pennsylvania's tolerance will eventually be a guide for later states to accept different religion and ideas.
Ideas, Beliefs, and Cultures [CUL]
Q: How did the expansion of cultural contact that took place with permanent colonization alter conditions in North America and affect intellectual and religious life, the growth of trade, and the shape of political institutions?
A: People of more cultures were in America. Previously it had only been several different Native American tribes.
States were founded for religions, such as the Catholic state of Maryland and the Quaker Pennsylvania. The culture in these states were shaped around the religious values.
It also led to the first Great Awakening, which stressed religious freedom and challenged the status of established churches.
Trade grew because people from different areas had different products to provide. Products such as cotton, coacoa, and wheat were traded between continents.
The house of Burgesses was the first legislative assembly of a body of elected officials in the Americas. The House of Burgesses wokred as a government to the colonists. Due to the colonists' distance from England, they decided to make their own government instead of obeying to the King.
"And now, are not some of you ready to cry out, "These are hard sayings, who can bear them?" But let not sincere christians be in the least terrified at what has been delivered: No, for you is reserved a crown, a kingdom, an eternal and exceeding weight of glory. Christ never said that the righteous, the believing, the upright, the sincere, but the wicked, merciless, negatively good professors before described, shall go into everlasting punishment. For you, who love him in sincerity, a new and living way is laid open into the Holy of Holies by the blood of Jesus Christ: and an abundant entrance will be administered unto you, at the great day of account, into eternal life."
Author: George Whitefield, noted figure of the Great Awakening.
Place/time: 1740 in Savannah, GA
Prior Knowledge: During the religious revival of the Great Awakening, ideas of redemption and shaping of behavior to promise the entrance to heaven led to the large increase of relgious interest and newly formed denominations decided to congregate outside of f established churches to break down the heirarchical nature of churches and authority.
Audience: To the inhabitants of Savannah
Reason: At a church service, Whitefield served to preah religious behavior
The Main Idea: Believers of Christ shall not be afraid of condemnation to hell
Significance: This showed an example of sermons during the Great Awakening and the ideals that were preached as guidelines of morality.
The Mayflower Compact was the first social contract for a New England Colony which gave political rights to every male colonists who obeyed the law. This contract was created and signed by 41 separtists who were fleeing the prosecution by King James of England.
Maryland Toleration Act
The Maryland Toleration Act was a law passed in Maryland that mandated the toleration of all Christians. Maryland was founded to be a refuge for all Christians.
The Navigation Acts were an effort made by England to control America's trade. They did this by passing laws that controlled the colonies' trade to benefit the mother country.
King Philip's War
King Philip's War was led by the Pokunoket tribe leader King Philip. This was the last big effort made by the Natives to drive away the colonists.
Bacon's Rebellion was a rebellion in Virginia in which they tried to overthrow Governor William Berkeley (Who was supported by the British). Due to this being an armed rebellion, English soliders went to VA to halt the resistance.
The Great Awakening was a time when religious revival swept through the British Colonies. The ideas of religious freedom and the of challenging existing churches were strengthened.
The Molasses Act was a British Law that implemented a tax on all imports of Molasses, Sugar, and Rum from all non-British distributors. This Act furthered the high tensions between the colonies and the British.
By Ally, Michael, and Jenny
William Penn- founder