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APES Chap 8 - 11
Transcript of APES Chap 8 - 11
Water Resources CHAPTER 10
LAND, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE Who owns a tree? Expansion of Residential Land Use Urban Blight How water is used by humans Types Humans altering water flow The Earth is Constantly Moving Soil Formation Weathering and Erosion Chapter 8:
Earth System -The Earth's Crust is made of separate plates that float on top of the mantle.
- The heating of the mantle at the core and cooling at the crust causes convection currents in the mantle.
- This movement causes the plates of the crust to shift over time. Physical Weathering
Breaks down the rock by means of wind, water, or any other mechanical processes.
Breaks down rocks by dissolving their minerals and elements through chemical reactions. Soil is the combination for weathered rock and organic matter
Formation is effected by
Type of rock in the area
The gradient of slopes in the area
Time allowed to form Water is
is rare. Levees- enlarged banks
built on each side
of a river Industry? Urban Sprawl is a creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas and remove clear boundaries of the two. Degradation of the built and social environments of the city that accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs. Energy Subsidy For years lumber industries would check themselves and make sure sustainability was possible. Now they only check their profit. Groundwater Exists in the multiple of
small spaces found within permeable
layers of rock and sediment
called Aquifers Unconfined Aquifer- water can easily
flow in and out Confined Aquifer- impermeable, water
cannot flow in and out Water Table- the uppermost level in an area where water fully saturates the soil or rock Groundwater Recharge- when water
from precipitation works its way
into an aquifer Springs- where water from an aquifer comes up to the surface as fresh water Cone of Depression- area where there is no longer any groundwater Surface Water Fresh water that exists
above the ground - Streams
-Wetlands Floodplain- land adjacent to rivers where excess water flows Oligotrophic- lakes with low nutrient levels and low productivity Mesotrophic- lakes with moderate levels of productivity Eutrophic- lakes with high levels of productivity Atmospheric Water Atmospheric water is essential
to global water distribution Impermeable surface- pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration Dikes- built to prevent ocean waters from flooding Dams- Barrier that runs
across a river or stream
to control the water flow Some states still have vast forestry despite the selfish mentality of industries. However, this might not be the case in a few years. Reservoir- a large body of water behind a dam where water is stored Aqueducts- A canal or ditched used to transport water from one lake or body of water to a place where it is needed Desalination- removing
all the salt from water Fish ladders- built like a set of stairs with water flowing over them to help migrating fish where dams are built Irrigation Furrow Irrigation Flood Irrigation Spray Irrigation Drip Irrigation Hydroponic Agriculture- growing of
crops in a greenhouse where the
roots are in a nutrient rich solution
instead of soil Industry - Generating Electricity
- Cooling Machinery
-Refining Metals and Plastics Households Helping the future of water Water Ownership -The right to water and
actually owning it are not
the same thing -"Water wars" between
countries have happened Water Conservation -In many developed countries ways to use water more efficiently through technology have been developed -More efficient machines
also tend to cost more The places where the plates separate, collide, or slide past each other are called faults.
These areas usually have a high density of volcanoes or seismic activity. The Physical breakdown of rock The movement of rock from its original location Agriculture Types of Rock Igneous Formed Directly from Magma Granitic Basaltic Large Crystals
Continental Rock Small Crystals
Oceanic Rock Intrusive Extrusive Formed inside the crust Formed outside the crust Sedimentary Formed from compressed sediment Commonly contain fossils Metamorphic Formed under intense heat and pressure Can originate as either sedimentary or igneous rock The four main causes of urban sprawl include automobiles and highway construction, living costs, urban blight, and government policies. To address issues of traffic congestion, urban sprawl, and urban blight, governments use zoning to separate residential neighborhoods. Public? Should the people decide on what
lumber companies can do? Government? Should the government enforce strong regulations to keep these companies and the environment intact? Human Land Use Tragedy of the Commons Urban Sprawl When outlining the scope and purpose of a development, what's known as an environmental impact statement (EIS) is used to describe the environmental context and to suggest alternative approaches to the project. To protect the environment from damage associated with construction, several laws and construction processes have been enacted by the federal government. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) This act, created in 1969, mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits. Chapter Eleven:
Feeding the World About one billion people worldwide lack access to adequate amounts of food. Nutritional Requirements Undernutrition: Not consuming
enough calories to be healthy. Undernutrition is often confused with Malnourishment which occurs when one's diet lacks the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals that are necessary. The condition in which people have access to safe, sufficient, and nutritious food. Famine is a condition in which food security is so poor that large numbers of deaths occur in a certain area over a relatively short period. (Famine in Ethiopia) Food Security: The number of calories of energy received per calories of energy required to produce a certain food. Inputs and Outputs in Food Production Sustainable farming
methods generally are most common amongst traditional farmers. Methods such as intercropping and crop rotation as sustainable. classify Agroforestry is another sustainable
method which prevents erosion by intercropping trees
with vegetables. Other Sustainable Farming Techniques Contour Plowing: Plowing and harvesting parallel to the topographic contours of the land. Public Land Humans value land for what it can
provide: food, shelter, and natural resources. Individual activities on any parcel of land can
have wide-ranging effects on other lands Residential land use is expanding