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B1 Last minute revision
Transcript of B1 Last minute revision
Number of antibodies rises fastER
GreatER number produced
Follow Mountain tracks
Key Hormone: AUXIN
Makes plants BEND towards the light
Makes shoots grow up and roots grow down (gravity)
Released by TI
Auxins accumulate on the lower or darker side of a stem
Makes those cells grow faster
Being Healthy & Immunity
Nerves, Hormones & Menstrual cycle
Drugs and Data
Adaptations, Natural Selection & Evolution
Variation, Cloning & Genetic Engineering
What you need to know about B1
Key Hormones to remember
1 - FSH
- Stimulates follices/eggs to
uterus (more blood vessels) and causes release of LH
Hormone - causes the egg to be released
Where are they made - LH & FSH (the abbreviated ones) in the PITUITARY GLAND
Oestrogen & Progesterone - Ovaries
odies made by
arget infected cells and kill them
Memory (B or T) cells prevent a repeat infection
So the 2nd response is FASTER, more rapid and MORE antibodies are produced
Why: To make proteins that the body can not make, e.g. insulin
HOW - GENE --> PLASMID --> BACTERIA --> BACTERIA uses gene to make protein/hormone/insulin etc.
Asexual cloning happens naturally in plants
Farmers might do it to get crops with high yields or cows with more milk
DNA from animal to be cloned put into an empty egg cell (Nucleus removed)
Put in surrogate mum.
Ethics of Cloning
When asked about ethics or the rights of cloning , good answers are:
+ Economic benefits, increased yield
+Clone has not been altered genetically
+Products (e.g. milk) are not altered and safe
Consumers resist because of fears
- Consumers do not understand how it is done
- not enough long term scientific evidence about safety
Evolution and Natural Selection
1 Mutations cause variation
2 Best adapted individuals survive AND reproduce
3 Good genes passed onto children
4 Good genes become more common.
Its in the bones!
Fossil record shows change
e.g Modern horse has less toes and longer legs.
Darwin's theory was not accepted because of lack of evidence and it conflicted with the bible.
In a case study question, look for the evolutionary advantage of features:
eg Produces more young/ conserves energy/prevents predation
He was wrong - he said the environment changes your genes and this could be passed on.
Describe - say what you see. Use the axis labels
Explain - give the science, start with because
Compare/Difference - state key differences, use words like smallER, fastER etc.
Adaptations - Point and Explain
Frequently there will be clues in the picture about adaptations.
Adaptations help Animals avoid predation, catch prey, stay warm or keep cool
Adaptations help Plants conserve water
Questions on Deca
Micro-organisms need it
So they can use the waste material for RESPIRATION
Insects and cold blooded animals
Loose less heat as they are cold blooded
So less energy is wasted
So more efficient
Its better to be vegetarian as there are less stages of the food chain
So less energy is lost before it gets to you!
But if you had to eat meat, insects and lizards would be your best bet!
My last 3 tips
Under line key words
1 mark - 1 sentence
Check your answer.
Good luck :)
In these questions:
COMPARE - so use words like greatER,
For: Evidence in fossil record showing gradual change
Observations of animals - Finches
Carried out his own breeding experiments on pigeons
Against - Could not explain how features like the eye evolved in gradual steps
No mechanism of inheritance was known (the gene was not discovered at the time)
Conflicted with the ideas of the bible and creationism
Darwin was a
(That just means he bred them)
If I can make one tiny difference to YOUR success in this exam
right now, it would be to.....
Examiners will make you think.... but they always leave breadcrumbs as clues... (which decay..)
Watch out for geotropisms and gravity
Auxins make Root cells grow slower - so bends down
" " Shoot cells grow faster - so bends upwards
Always the same answer..
Gene cut out from species 1's DNA
Added to species 2 DNA
When its an embryo (for animals)
Energy is lost at each stage of a food chain through
MOST don't like Pollution
So less grow where it is polluted
You might be asked to design an experiment
Use 10 or more trees... in each area
Measure the size of each lichen
Think about control variables e.g. at same height, facing the same way
Explain your results
1st 30 seconds only
Animals AND plants
Decompose Dead stuff
Take in CO2
Control of fertility:
Want to get pregnant - IVF
Need the abbreviations:
FSH & LH
Don't want to get pregnant
Oestrogen & Progesterone