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Transcript of Groupthink
Group pressure leads to mutual conclusion
High group satisfaction, but ineffective output
Based on cohesiveness (Kurt Lewin, 1930s)
degree of mutual interest within group
highly cohesive - strong mutual identification
exhibit signs of interdependence
can be a good thing as brings members together, enhances relationships
Janis recognizes dangers (6 negative outcomes) Key Concepts 1. Illusion of invulnerability - "air of optimism"
2. Rationalize - group made the right decision
3. Morality - well motivated, working towards best interests/outcome
4. Stereotype - outlier seen as evil, weak, stupid
7. Mindguard - self-appointed individual, protects group from countering opinions
5. Self-censorship - reluctant to state opposing view points
6. Illusion of unanimity - "group rallies outwardly around position of solidarity", even if decision is not unanimous throughout group Assumptions 1. Using a group of people to solve a problem will enhance the decision quality. There are benefits of using a group of people to solve a problem.
2. “Group problem solving is essentially a rational process...”
3. Group’s desire for consensus results in “concurrence-seeking attitudes and behaviors.” Group members will respond passively to external pressures and not reach actualization because of groupthink.
4. “An illusion of well-being is presumed to be inherently dysfunctional.” Critique Testability
Test of Time
Utility Activity References 1. The group limits its discussion to only a few alternatives without considering a full range of creative possibilities.
2. The position initially favored by most members is never restudied to seek out less obvious pitfalls.
3. The group fails to re-examine those alternatives originally disfavored by the majority.
4. Expert opinion is not sought.
5. The group is highly selective in gathering and attending to available information.
6. The group is so confident in its ideas that it does not consider contingency plans. 6 Negative Outcomes
of Groupthink 1. Encourage everyone to be a critical evaluator.
2. Do not have the leader state a preference upfront.
3. Set up independent and separate sub-groups.
4. Discuss with others outside the group.
5. Invite outsiders into the group to bring fresh ideas.
6. Assign a Devil’s advocate.
7. Surveying warning signals.
8. Reconsider decisions before finalizing them.