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FDR's Speeches,MLK Speech, & Rhetorical devices/appeals

Elements of an Arguement, Persuasive Appeals, Rhetorical Devices
by

Leah Hackmann

on 17 February 2016

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Transcript of FDR's Speeches,MLK Speech, & Rhetorical devices/appeals

OUTCOMES:
Students will be able to:
1. ...annotate "I Have a Dream" for elements of an argument (claim, support/evidence).
2. ...chart examples of rhetorical devices such as parallelism, repetition, and analogy.

Journal #2
Agenda
-Outcomes
-Warm-up #2
-Review Argument and Rhetorical Devices
-Listen to MLK Jr.'s "I Have a Dream"
-annotate for elements of an argument and rhetorical devices
-finish classwork packet for homework.
-exit ticket

Finish Classwork for HW.
Knowing that we will be free one day, with this faith we will be able to work together, and to pray together.

"I Have a Dream"


Can a DREAM change the world?
Rhetorical Devices:
Voice
Historical Lens
Parallelism
Repetition
Analogy
rhetoric: the art of studying or using language effectively and/or persuasively.
comparing two things (metaphor, simile) that are alike in several (more than one) aspects, for the purpose of clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea.
a simile or metaphor is more artistic and brief...
while an analogy is more practical =to explain a thought process or a line of reasoning (more concrete)
repeated use of the same word or word pattern used for emphasis
...also called
parallel structure
; items in a series appear in
parallel grammatical form
.
Expressed ideas are related and of equal importance.
*creates rhythm
"Today's students can put
dope in their veins
or
hope in their brains
. If
they can conceive it
and
believe it
,
they can achieve it
. They must know it is not
their aptitude
but
their attitude
that will determine
their altitude
."
(Jesse Jackson)
"When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative."
(Martin Luther King, Jr.)
•Anadiplosis
Repetition of the

last word
of one line or clause to

begin the next
.
"My conscience hath a thousand
several tongues
,
And every
tongue
brings in a
several tale
,
And every
tale
condemns me for a villain."
(William Shakespeare, Richard III)
•Anaphora
Repetition of a word or phrase at the
beginning
of successive clauses or verses.

"
I want her
to live.
I want her
to breathe.
I want her
to aerobicize."
(Weird Science, 1985)
•Epiphora
Repetition of a word or phrase at the
end
of several clauses.

"She's safe,
just like I promised
.
She's all set to marry Norrington,
just like she promised
.
And you get to die for her,
just like you promised
."
(Jack Sparrow, The Pirates of the Caribbean)
•"If you want my final opinion on the mystery of life and all that, I can give it to you in a nutshell. The
universe is like a safe to which there is a combination. But the combination is locked up in the safe
."
(Peter De Vries, Let Me Count the Ways. Little Brown, 1965)
a writer's unique use of language that allows the reader to "hear" a human personality in the writer's work.
analyzing a piece of literature based on the time period in which it is set.
For example:
We would critically analyze character's motivations and actions based on the time period in which it is set or against a significant historical incident during that time period.
To Kill a Mockingbird=
The Great Depression/ Segregation in the South
A Raisin in the Sun=
Civil Rights Movement
Romeo and Juliet=
The Odyssey=
cLAIM
rEASON
rEASON
rEASON
eVIDENCE
eVIDENCE
eVIDENCE
eVIDENCE
eVIDENCE
eVIDENCE
eSSENTIAL eLEMENTS fOR aN aRGUMENT
THE WRITER'S OR SPEAKER'S
POSITION ON AN ISSUE
SUPPORT
-reasons and evidence that support the claim
-often stated in the introduction and/or conclusion of an argument.
-facts
-statistics
-examples
-anecdotes
-quotations
(from known experts)
Rhetorical
Appeals
Appeals by Association
Appeal to Values (ETHOS)
Emotional Appeals (PATHOS)
Appeals by
Logic (LOGOS)
Word Choice:
-loaded language
-uses words that evoke strong feelings
-appeal to pity, fear, or vanity
We cannot, we must not, refuse to protect the right of every American to vote in every election...And we ought not, and we cannot, and we must not wait another eight months before we get a bill.

-from "We Shall Overcome" by Lyndon Johnson
Let there be
justice for all.
Let there be
peace for all.
Let there be
work, bread, water, and salt for all."
-Nelson Mandela
Have you heard the
canned, frozen and processes product
being dished out to the world
as American popular music today
?
- Billy Joel
universal appeal to logic and reasoning
"For a mere dollar a day, you can give a stray pet a second chance."
"For the safety of our innocent children..."
-taps into people's values or moral standards
-Bandwagon Appeal (everyone's do it!)
-"Plain Folks" Appeal (ordinary people)
-Testimonial (well known person)
-Transfer (connects product to positive image)
credibility
-facts
-statistics
My vision for a better world...
Ideas...
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Actions people would need to take to make your vision a reality...
Close Read for Rhetorical Devices & Tone
AGENDA
- Collect/Check R&J Act 5
Study Guide & Argument Chart
-Review for Act 5 Quiz
-Act 5 Quiz
-Start Notes
-Review for Homework


HOMEWORK:
-write your argument paragraph
Logos
Pathos
Ethos

Three ways to master rhetoric


Author/Rhetor (Ethos)





Audience Purpose
(Pathos) (Logos)

The Basic Rhetorical Triangle
A well-balanced argument gives attention to all three points of the triangle, establishing your authority (ethos), drawing the audience emotionally (pathos), and doing justice to the facts (logos).

If you were trying to convince your parents for a later curfew, they most likely will be persuaded by logos: facts about where you’ll be going, who you’ll be going with, what you’ll be doing and how they can reach you. However, even though they may appeal more to logos, it’s not a bad idea to throw a little pathos in as well.
On the flip side, if you are trying to peer pressure your friend who is afraid of heights to go on a high roller coaster, statements full of pathos will work best: “Come on chicken…bawk, bawk, bawk, bawk” Even though peer pressure is just a manipulation of emotions, some teens might need some logos thrown in (like the safety facts etc)

Good writers use a combination of all three appeals…

Ensures the reader respects the author and his/her views.
Helps the reader to see the author as:
Reliable
Trustworthy
Competent
Credible


Effect of Ethos on the Audience

In order to create effective rhetoric, you (AUTHOR or RHETOR) must first understand who your audience is and for what purpose you’re writing.
If you were writing a high school sweetheart in class it might read “Hey baby, I dig you.”
If you wrote a different letter to your grandparents it might start with “Dear grandma and grandpa,”
And if you wrote a business letter for a class assignment, it would probably read
“To whom it may concern””

Audience

This ad shows a picture of Roger Federer, the number one tennis player in the world, wearing a Rolex watch. The basic message meant to be conveyed by this advertisement is "Roger Federer considers our watch brand good enough to wear. If the best tennis player in the world likes our watches they must be good!" It uses the popularity and good reputation of Roger Federer to endorse the product.

ETHOS EXAMPLE

This advertisement shows a
picture of a child who is so
malnourished he is curled up in
the fetal position waiting to die.
The vulture in the background
adds emphasis to the imminent
doom ahead. The sad situation
of this child is intended to
invoke sympathy in the reader
and convince them to donate
money to the cause promoted
below.

Pathos is the use of words and phrases to move the audience to action by arousing emotion.
Even if you cannot convince the audience of your point, you must at least evoke some emotion, response, reaction or move/touch them in some powerful way
Chances are you only learn from teachers who make you feel something in class rather than teachers who bore you with facts in a monotone voice
Figurative language
Vivid descriptions
Anecdotes, testimonies, or narratives
about emotional experiences or events
Emotionally loaded language/Emotional tone
Connotative meanings of words

Pathos = Emotional

This ad is promoting Energizer
lithium technology batteries. On
The left it says,“ Lasts up to
seven times longer in high-tech
devices than the leading ordinary
alkaline battery".
This statistic is meant to convince
the reader that this particular
brand is far superior to all others
and that any logical person
should buy this brand. After all, if
this one is seven times better than
all the others, why bother getting
anything else?

LOGOS EXAMPLE

Logos is an appeal to logic and reasoning through the use of evidence such as facts, statistics, and quotes from reputable sources.
For example, “Studies show 9 out of 10 teachers prefer students who participate in class.”
Factual data/statistics
Quotations from experts and authorities
Denotative meanings/reasons
Literal and historical analogies
Quotations (Bible, Constitution, etc.)
Theories and scientific facts

Logos = Logical

Teenagers are natural masters of rhetoric- they easily use language in hopes to persuade their friends, teachers and parents.
Politicians use it for a vote, teenagers peer pressure friends, adults write reports at work- everyone uses rhetoric in some form or another.
If a students understand how they can use rhetoric in their assignments, they will have the power to write effectively

Rhetoric is everywhere…

What is rhetoric?
The Art of Persuading Your Audience
Rhetoric

Evokes an emotional response.
Persuasion by emotion
High emotions:
Fairness
Love
Pity
Empathy
Low Emotions
Greed
Lust
Revenge
Avarice

Effect of Pathos on the Audience

Evokes a cognitive, rational response.
Readers get a sense of
“Oh, that makes sense,” or
“Hmmm, that really doesn’t prove anything.

Effect of Logos on the Audience

Ethos is the use of words and phrases to connect with the audience and win their trust and respect.
There are many ways to show off your character or expertise:
correct grammar
high diction
citing a credible source
explaining extensive background knowledge on a subject

Yoo probabley woudnt lissen to a english teacher if he wroat licke this


Ethos = Credibility

Possible Distortion:
Abstraction

Possible Distortion:
Egotism

Possible Distortion:
Propaganda

Too much emphasis to facts/logos, makes you fall into a kind of distortion: making the subject seem cold and abstract.
If you lean too much toward the
audience, you can start to create
propaganda.
And, if you put to much emphasis on your own character and values, you will seem egotistical.


If you give too much…

Aristotle first defined rhetoric as “the power to see the possible ways of persuading people about a given subject.”
Student of Plato,
teacher of Alexander the Great,
author of over 170 works; 30 of which survive;
his work, the Rhetoric, is widely regarded as the most important work on persuasion ever published
AGENDA
-Journal & Drill #4
-Collect R&J books
-Collect "Blame" papers
-Check HW together
-Academic Vocabulary
-Get
TKaM
HOMEWORK
-read MLK Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Speech
-annotate for repetition,parallelism, analogy, and allusion

-write a paragraph that identifies the overall TONE and how that tone is created. 7-10 sentences
* This is a large Homework Grade
be sure to do it BY YOURSELF and not copy!!!
HOMEWORK
Type your first draft
Consider:
-MLA format (date for 29th)
-double spaced 12pt. font
-1" Margins
-the title
Romeo and Juliet
is italicized when typed
-citations
-proper diction (no mas= alot, very, much, many, good, bad, This quote shows/says...
LEHACKMANN@AACPS.ORG
Journal #2
What are Human Rights?




What are three Human Rights that all people deserve? Explain why you chose each of the three...
Homework:
READ 1-3
Journal #4
You will need:
-1 highlighter
-one sheet of paper
Journal #3
Creative Writing on a separate sheet of paper
AGENDA
-Journal & Drill #5
-Get books
-Read
-Practice Lit Circles

HOMEWORK:
Read Chapters 1-3 of TKaM
-know that you will be filling out an annotations sheet for next class and it is important that you have read
Journal #5
2004
2007
2013
2010
2001
1998
CLIMAX
Chapters 1-3
CLOSE Reads
cHAPTERS 4-7
“Boney mules hitched to Hoover carts
flicked flies in the sweltering shade
of the live oaks on the square.”

Grammar Sentences:
AGENDA
-Collect Homework (annotations Chapters 2&3)
-Check Lit. Circle Task
-Review
-CFRQ 1-3
-Get into groups and report on Chapters 1-3
-Start Homework
Homework
Read chapters 4-7 and answer the study guide questions
AGENDA
-jOURNAL & dRILL #9
-read aloud
-one pager
-2 Chapter summaries
two important quotes explained

hOMEWORK
-finish one pager and summaries
jOURNAL #7
fIGURATIVE lANGUAGE bINGO
Answering the questions in a delayed manner, Mr. Ewell, the

disgrace of Maycomb, maliciously tried to prove an innocent

man guilty of rape charges.
DIRECTIONS
1. Get with your partner and exchange homeworks
2. Read all their questions and jot notes down for answering
3. Sit together and discuss your findings of all 18 of your combine questions
4. On the index card given to you and your partner, write three great seminar/discussion questions (maybe adding to some based on your discussion)
5. Hand in your index cards. I will distribute your card to another group
6. You and your partner, on a piece of paper will answer their three questions completely with examples from the text (not necessarily quotes)
7. Find the group with which you exchanged your questions and discuss your findings
8. Within your 4 person group, on the index card I give you, create one question that is intriguing enough for a whole class discussion
Questions:
1. You and your partner, sit next to each other with your Homework (9 questions each)
2. Switch homeworks with each other & silently review all of them
3. Together (with all 18 of your questions) choose 3 total questions and write them down on ONE side of an index card with your names at the top. Hand them in.
4. You will be getting another group's card with their three choices. One the back of their card, write the question that you like the most (you can add to the question if you and your partner want). Write your names at the bottom and hand in.
Journal #8
You are writing a letter to the incoming freshman describing what they can expect from this class. You should give them tips, advise, techniques that worked for you, a little bit about the novels/stories you have read.
You should also include some information about the school and a mini-"survival guide" for their first year.
Include any recommendations or advise for the future.

This needs to be in letter form with proper grammar, spelling, punctuation and conventions (capitalization etc.)
JOurnal #9
Explain...
1. What does the mockingbird symbolize?

2. Identify three different characters and their archetype. Explain why they are that particular archetype.
Leaving greasy sweat streaks on the wall, he gently hooked his thumbs into his belt to hide his shame.
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm
Full transcript