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9th Grade Biology

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Jenny Tang

on 12 September 2011

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Transcript of 9th Grade Biology

Structures Microorganisms Organisms Macro Biology is the study of LIFE include... Bacteria Viruses Classification Reproduction Advantages Disadvantages Structures No nucleus! No organelles! made of peptidoglycan for mobile species 1 .Kingdoms 2. Shapes 3.Metabolic Diversity 4.Respiration Eubacteria Archaebacteria Use peptidoglycan for cell wall DON'T use peptidoglycan for cell wall Spherical Rod-shaped Spiral-shaped Heterotrophs Autotrophs chemoautotroph photoautotrophs aka chemoheterotrophs cyanobacteria Aerobes Anaerobes do not use oxygen use oxygen Ex: tetanus Ex: tuberculosis Binary Fission Conjugation DNA replicate Split into
2 daughter cells asexual reproduction
similar to mitosis contact between donor and recipient genetic information exchanged through hollow bridge called pili How are bacteria harmful? How are bacteria beneficial? cause diseases damage cells and tissues release toxins that interfere with activity of host decomposers - septic treatment gut flora - E. coli & vitamin K fermentation - yogurt nitrogen fixation Genetic Material Capsid (Head) Tail Fibers 1. Genetic Material (DNA/ RNA) Virus has 2 basic parts: Reproduction Viruses reproduce by

host cells with

With it, they hijack host cell structures to make copies of themselves. Treatments Size comparison bacteria are HUGE in comparison to viruses Vaccinations have been used to prevent viral and bacterial diseases. Antibiotics block the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Learning Check 1. List as many cell structures as you can.
2. Circle all structures in prokaryotic cells
3. Box all structures found in human cells 2. Protein Coating (Capsid) Just for reference:
E. coli ~ 2 micrometers long
T4 bacteriophage ~200 nanometers long
T4 is 10 times smaller than the E. coli it infects. Classification 1. Type of genetic material 2. Type of host it infects Viruses that contain RNA are called retroviruses HIV and SARS are retroviruses bacteriophages Most viruses are host specific 3. Shape Helical Icosahedral Complex infecting genetic material 2 patterns of infection Lysogenic Cycle: Lytic Cycle:
1. Virus inject DNA into host cell

2. DNA gets replicated

3. Host cell makes virus parts using replicated DNA

4. New viruses assemble

5. New viruses lyse the host cell 1. virus inject DNA into host cell

2. DNA inserts into host DNA

3. DNA replicates with host DNA

4. UV radiation and other changes can cause viral DNA to pop back out.

5. follow steps 3 - 5 of lytic cycle What structures are found in bacterial cells but NOT human cells? How does penicillin work? Why should Germ-X be used in moderation? Cell Structure Cell Membrane Parts: phospholipids phospholipid bilayer proteins peripheral proteins integrated proteins carbohydrate chains Function: cell membrane regulates what comes in and goes out of the cell provides protection and support Osmosis Faciliated Diffusion Active Transport How would you classify these bacteria? How about this?
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